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Timelines of Ancient Europe => Continental Europe: Past & Present => Topic started by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:33:21 am



Title: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:33:21 am
(http://k43.pbase.com/g4/20/512420/2/62105942.xo93Gk20.jpg)








                                                               P A R I S






In spite of all sources stating that Paris, France was founded on July 8, 951 C.E., I could not find any

proof of it.



Nevertheless, let us celebrate the CITY OF LIGHTS........





(http://www.nassirimusic.com/wp-content/gallery/france/france-download-21.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:43:22 am
(http://www.aboutromania.com/FrancePoliticalMap.gif)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:47:23 am
(http://www.paris-architecture.info/IMAGES/paris_city_map.jpg)

MAP OF THE CITY OF PARIS TODAY








Paris is the capital of France and the country's largest city.

It is situated on the River Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region (also known as the "Paris Region"; French: Région parisienne).

The city of Paris within its administrative limits (largely unchanged since 1860) has an estimated population of 2,167,994 (January 2006). The Paris unité urbaine (or urban area) extends well beyond
the administrative city limits and has an estimated population of 9.93 million (in 2005).

The Paris aire urbaine (or metropolitan area) has a population of nearly 12 million, and is one of the
most populated metropolitan areas in Europe.

An important settlement for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the world's leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.

The Paris Region (Île-de-France) is Europe's biggest city economy, and is fifth in the World's list of
cities by GDP. With €500.8 billion (US$628.9 billion), it produced more than a quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP) of France in 2006.

The Paris Region hosts 36 of the Fortune Global 500 companies in several business districts, notably
La Défense, the largest purpose-built business district in Europe.  Paris also hosts many international organizations such as UNESCO, the OECD, the ICC and the informal Paris Club.

Paris is the most popular tourist destination in the world, with over 30 million foreign visitors per year.

There are numerous iconic landmarks among its many attractions, along with world famous institutions and popular parks.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:50:22 am
(http://lh4.ggpht.com/lynnmhuber/R98_7GU0CSI/AAAAAAAABlM/okbxtD1Iujs/100_3098.JPG?imgmax=512)

RUINS OF ANCIENT PARIS


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:52:01 am
                                                (http://www.igougo.com/images/p181209-Paris-ancient_well.jpg)




(http://img.groundspeak.com/waymarking/display/6bffeb19-b5af-42d1-b05e-d7fc932235d6.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 07:58:00 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Gaul%2C_1st_century_BC.gif/643px-Gaul%2C_1st_century_BC.gif)









The History of Paris spans over 2,500 years, during which time the city grew from a small Celtic settlement to the multicultural capital of a modern European state and one of the world's major
global cities.

The name Paris pronounced derives from that of its pre-Roman-era inhabitants, the Gaulish tribe known as the Parisii.

The city was called Lutetia (more fully, Lutetia Parisiorum, "Lutetia of the Parisii"), during the first- to sixth-century Roman occupation, but, during the reign of Julian the Apostate (361–363), the city was renamed as Paris.

Paris has many nicknames, but its most famous is "The City of Light" (La Ville-lumière), a name it owes both to its fame as a centre of education and ideas and its early adoption of street lighting. Paris since the early 20th century has also been known in Parisian slang as Paname ([panam]; Moi j'suis d'Paname  i.e. "I'm from Paname").

Paris' inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians"  or and in French as Parisiens .

Parisians are often pejoratively called Parigots by those living outside the Paris region, but the term may be considered endearing by Parisians themselves.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 08:22:46 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Romanbathparis.jpg)

Roman baths beneath Paris










The earliest archaeological signs of permanent habitation in the Paris area date from around 4200 BC.

The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, known as boatsmen and traders, inhabited the area near the river Seine from around 250 BC.

The Romans conquered the Paris basin in 52 BC, with a permanent settlement by the end of the same century on the Left Bank Sainte Geneviève Hill and the Île de la Cité island.

The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia, but later Gallicised to Lutèce. It expanded greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palaces, baths, temples, theatres and an amphitheatre.

The collapse of the Roman empire and the third-century Germanic invasions sent the city into a period
of decline.

By 400 AD Lutèce, by then largely abandoned by its inhabitants, was little more than a garrison town entrenched into the hastily fortified central island.

The city reclaimed its original appellation of "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 08:27:28 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f5/Les_Tr%C3%A8s_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_octobre.jpg/360px-Les_Tr%C3%A8s_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_octobre.jpg)

The Louvre castle

from the 15th century
Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry








Around AD 500, Paris was the seat of Frankish king Clovis I, who commissioned the first cathedral and its first abbey dedicated to his contemporary, later patron saint of the city, Sainte Geneviève.

On the death of Clovis, the Frankish kingdom was divided, and Paris became the capital of a much smaller sovereign state.

By the time of the Carolingian dynasty (9th century), Paris was little more than a feudal county stronghold.

Counts of Paris gradually rose to prominence and eventually wielded greater power than the Kings of Francia occidentalis.

Odo, Count of Paris was elected king in place of the incumbent Charles the Fat, namely for the fame he gained
in his defense of Paris during the Viking siege (Siege of Paris (885-886)).

Although the Cité island had survived the Viking attacks, most of the unprotected Left Bank city was destroyed; rather than rebuild there, after drying marshlands to the north of the island, Paris began to expand onto the Right Bank.

In 987 AD, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, was elected King of France, founding the Capetian dynasty which would raise Paris to become France's capital[citation needed].

From 1190, King Philip Augustus enclosed Paris on both banks with a wall that had the Louvre as its western fortress and in 1200 chartered the University of Paris which brought visitors from across Europe. It was during
this period that the city developed a spatial distribution of activities that can still be seen:

the central island housed government and ecclesiastical institutions,

the left bank became a scholastic centre with the University and colleges, while

the right bank developed as the centre of commerce and trade around the central Les Halles marketplace.




Paris lost its position as seat of the French realm while occupied by the English-allied Burgundians during the Hundred Years' War, but regained its title when Charles VII reclaimed the city in 1437.

Although Paris was capital once again, the Crown preferred to remain in its Loire Valley castles.

During the French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party, culminating in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (1572).

King Henry IV re-established the royal court in Paris in 1594 after he converted to Roman Catholicism, with this historic sentence:

                                                      "Paris is well worth a Mass"



During the Fronde, Parisians rose in rebellion and the royal family fled the city (1648). King Louis XIV then
moved the royal court permanently to Versailles in 1682.

A century later, Paris was the centre stage for the French Revolution, with the Storming of the Bastille in 1789
and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1792.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 08:48:18 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/Gare_du_Nord_night_Paris_FRA_001.JPG/800px-Gare_du_Nord_night_Paris_FRA_001.JPG)

Gare du Nord, a symbol of the Industrial Revolution









The Industrial Revolution, the French Second Empire, and the Belle Époque brought Paris the greatest develop-
ment in its history. From the 1840s, rail transport allowed an unprecedented flow of migrants into Paris attracted by employment in the new industries in the suburbs.

The city underwent a massive renovation under Napoleon III and his préfet Haussmann, who levelled entire dis-
tricts of narrow, winding medieval streets to create the network of wide avenues and neo-classical façades of modern Paris. This programme of "Haussmannization" was designed to make the city both more beautiful and more sanitary for its inhabitants, although it did have the added benefit that in case of future revolts or revolutions, cavalry charges and rifle fire could be used to deal with the insurrection while the rebel tactic of barricading so often used during the Revolution would become obsolete.

Cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1849 affected the population of Paris—the 1832 epidemic alone claimed 20,000 of the then population of 650,000.

Paris also suffered greatly from the siege which ended the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871): in the chaos caused by the fall of Napoleon III's government, the Commune of Paris (1871) sent many of Paris's administrative centres (and city archives) up in flames while 20,000 Parisians were killed by fighting between Commune and Government forces in what became known as the semaine sanglante (Bloody Week).

Paris recovered rapidly from these events to host the famous Universal Expositions of the late nineteenth century.

The Eiffel Tower was built for the French Revolution centennial 1889 Universal Exposition, as a "temporary" display of architectural engineering prowess but remained the world's tallest building until 1930, and is the city's best-known landmark, while the 1900 Universal Exposition saw the opening of the first Paris Métro line.

Paris's World's Fairs also consolidated its position in the tourist industry and as an attractive setting for international technology and trade shows.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 08:54:35 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/Esplanade-de-la-defense.jpg/800px-Esplanade-de-la-defense.jpg)

The skyscraper business district of La Défense.










Twentieth century


 
During World War I, Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion
by the French and British victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. In 1918-1919, it was the scene
of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. In the inter-war period Paris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities and its nightlife.

The city became a gathering place of artists from around the world, from exiled Russian composer Stravinsky and Spanish painters Picasso and Dalí to American writer Hemingway.

In June 1940, five weeks after the start of the Battle of France, Paris fell to German occupation forces who remained there until the city was liberated in August 1944, two months after the Normandy invasion.

Central Paris endured World War II practically unscathed, as there were no strategic targets for Allied bombers (train stations in central Paris are terminal stations; major factories were located in the suburbs), and also because of its cultural significance. German General von Choltitz did not destroy all Parisian monuments before any German retreat, as ordered by Adolf Hitler, who had visited the city in 1940.

In the post-war era, Paris experienced its largest development since the end of the Belle Époque in 1914.

The suburbs began to expand considerably, with the construction of large social estates known as cités and the beginning of the business district La Défense. A comprehensive express subway network, the RER, was built to complement the Métro and serve the distant suburbs, while a network of freeways was developed in the suburbs, centred on the Périphérique expressway circling around the city.

Since the 1970s, many inner suburbs of Paris (especially the north and eastern ones) have experienced deindustrialization, and the once-thriving cités have gradually become ghettos for immigrants and oases of unemployment.

At the same time, the city of Paris (within its Périphérique ring) and the western and southern suburbs have successfully shifted their economic base from traditional manufacturing to high value-added services and high-tech manufacturing, generating great wealth for their residents whose per capita income is among the highest in Europe.

The resulting widening social gap between these two areas has led to periodic unrest since the mid-1980s, such as the 2005 riots which largely concentrated in the northeastern suburbs.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:05:50 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Paris_Night.jpg/800px-Paris_Night.jpg)









In order to address social tensions in the inner suburbs and revitalise the metropolitan economy of Paris, several plans are currently under way.

The office of Secretary of State for the Development of the Capital Region was created in March 2008 within the French government. Its office holder, Christian Blanc, is in charge of overseeing President Nicolas Sarkozy's plans for the creation of an integrated Grand Paris ("Greater Paris") metropolitan authority, as well as the extension of the subway network to cope with the renewed growth of population in Paris and its surbubs, and various economic development projects to boost the metropolitan economy such as the creation of a world-class technology and scientific cluster and university campus on the Saclay plateau in the southern suburbs.

In parallel, President Sarkozy also launched in 2008 an international urban and architectural competition for the future development of metropolitan Paris. Ten teams gathering architects, urban planners, geographers, landscape architects will offer their vision for building a Paris metropolis of the 21st century in the post-Kyoto era and make a prospective diagnosis for Paris and its suburbs that will define future developments in Greater Paris for the next 40 years. The goal is not only to build an environmentally sustainable metropolis but also to integrate the inner suburbs with the central City of Paris through large scale urban planning operations and iconic architectural projects.

Meanwhile, in an effort to boost the image of metropolitan Paris in the global competition, several supertall skyscrapers (300 m / 1,000 ft and higher) have been approved since 2006 in the business district of La Défense, to the west of the city proper, and are scheduled to be completed by the early 2010s. The City of Paris authorities also made public they are planning to authorize the construction of skyscrapers within the city proper by relaxing the cap on building height for the first time since the construction of the Tour Montparnasse in the early 1970s.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:12:40 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Panorama_Paris_December_2007.jpg/800px-Panorama_Paris_December_2007.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:14:52 am
(http://middlezonemusings.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/03/eiffel-tower.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:18:10 am
(http://images.google.it/url?q=http://www.unisi.it/ricerca/centri/cisaca/Parigi.jpg&usg=AFQjCNGfoa53Sp2uZ8u_hkD6GBze-EEWmw)



(http://library.gmu.edu/resources/french/arc-de-triomphe.jpg)

ARC DE TRIOMPHE


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:20:44 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/86/ChampsElysee.jpg/800px-ChampsElysee.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:23:00 am
(http://www.dl.ket.org/webmuseum/wm/paris/img/louvre.nuit-perspective.jpg)

THE LOUVRE


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:24:50 am
(http://www.pyramidperu.com/images/Design/LouvrePyramid.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:28:16 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2a/Notre_Dame_de_Paris_(front_side).jpg/800px-Notre_Dame_de_Paris_(front_side).jpg)

NOTRE DAME DE PARIS


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:30:12 am
(http://edsphotoblog.com/wp-content/photos/800px/0211_notre_dame.jpg)

NOTRE DAME DE PARIS

Side View


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:33:32 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/SaintMicheltubestationParis2.jpg/800px-SaintMicheltubestationParis2.jpg)

SAINT MICHEL TUBE STATION


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:36:57 am
(http://www.bonjourlafrance.net/france-geography/france-rivers/images/paris-seine-river.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:38:16 am
(http://www.atkielski.com/PhotoGallery/Paris/General/images/SeineNightLarge.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:40:12 am
(http://www.photoeverywhere.co.uk/west/paris/slides/seine_river2833.JPG)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:41:47 am
(http://digilander.libero.it/pugenzonline/parigi/parigi_02.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:46:13 am
(http://library.gmu.edu/resources/french/arc-de-triomphe.jpg)

ARC DE TRIOMPHE


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:49:57 am
(http://digilander.libero.it/pugenzonline/parigi/parigi_22.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:52:44 am
(http://cordovae.files.wordpress.com/2006/12/paris_8_versaille.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 09:58:04 am
(http://www.french-touch-art.com/lecomte-versailles-1715.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:02:13 am
           (http://www.raingod.com/angus/Gallery/Photos/Europe/France/Paris/images/Versailles01.jpg)

THE PALACE AT VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:07:06 am
(http://www.gardenvisit.com/assets/madge/versailles_fountain/original/versailles_fountain_original.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:08:45 am
(http://www.newdesignsolutions.com/images/versailles.jpg)





Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:10:49 am
(http://gfx.tripist.com/photos/15479/chateau_de_versailles.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:13:24 am
(http://www.duffergeek.com/uploaded_images/Versailles2-766791.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:17:24 am
(http://worldclips.tv/images/dynamic/VersaillesFountainRainbow-cu.jpg)

VERSAILLES


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:21:09 am
(http://www.dl.ket.org/webmuseum/wm/paint/auth/monet/paris/monet.parc-monceau.jpg)


LES PRIMTEMPS A PARIS
Paris In The Springtime

CLAUDE MONET


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:22:39 am
(http://bp0.blogger.com/_cWc5sWokn7Q/R_zik6dnSFI/AAAAAAAABmc/Xll9kHpOoRA/s400/ParisPark.jpg)




                                           (http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2298/1520940593_6f2fe1ad27.jpg?v=0)




(http://bp3.blogger.com/_cWc5sWokn7Q/R_zikqdnSEI/AAAAAAAABmU/SEmw6dxDzzw/s400/ParisFlowers.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:24:19 am
(http://www.wwvandc.com/images/France/842.jpg)




                                                                 (http://www.anh-minh.com/weblog/archives/paris08.JPG)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:28:21 am
(http://lh5.ggpht.com/Elizabeth.Larrick/RwvchQls5-I/AAAAAAAAANU/rS7m57DOkYE/136-3666_IMG.JPG?imgmax=512)





                                      (http://parisdaily.hi-fipop.com/boisvparissign.jpg)





(http://lh6.ggpht.com/TotemTravelBlog/SA9AzgKIM7I/AAAAAAAABWI/aswKSqgaJ3A/London%20%26%20France%20126.jpg?imgmax=512)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:36:41 am
(http://www.tfsimon.com/122.bmp.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:39:28 am
(http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3165/2409866198_fda969526b.jpg?v=0)




                                               (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/48/129877366_16686f9ef5.jpg?v=0)





(http://www.saltfiend.com/postpix/notredame.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:47:03 am
                                      (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/48/129877365_41b59b2357.jpg?v=0)





                          (http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1296/871286508_57cebb9fdf.jpg?v=0)




                                       (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/52/140405412_d2870f92bd.jpg?v=0)




Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:49:58 am
                                                   (http://data1.blog.de/media/703/505703_fa94196659_m.jpg)





(http://bp3.blogger.com/_F4KZjiTUwP0/Rlg6B75efdI/AAAAAAAACbI/iTl82frBB0Y/s400/parisspring.jpg)



                               

                                           (http://files.splinder.com/ba6637d3214992b92aef8cdbf524decf.jpeg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 10:57:54 am
(http://www.toonstravel.es/images/shoots/800_shoot_2500.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:01:11 am
(http://www.shinystyle.tv/Dior%20collage%203.jpg)

PARIS HAUTE COUTURE


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:02:56 am
(http://frillr.com/files/images/backstageeliesaab.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:05:00 am
(http://www.seinevalley.com/Photos%20Paris%20Concorde%20Faubourg%20Saint%20Honoré/images/Paris%20Dior%201.jpeg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:08:02 am
(http://www.fashion.kent.edu/sketch/32.184detail.jpg)

JACQUES FATH


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:11:36 am
(http://images.teamsugar.com/files/upl0/0/3987/14_2008/Picture%202_0.preview.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:15:40 am
(http://hpod.com/files/images/Audrey-Tautou-as-Coco-Chane.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:19:44 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/35/Chanel_logo.svg/800px-Chanel_logo.svg.png)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:21:51 am
                      (http://100mililitros.com/store/images/P/chanel-chanelNo.5-w500.jpg)






Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:33:00 am
(http://i25.photobucket.com/albums/c64/123patricia/kat_coco.jpg)

KATHERINE HEPBURN AS COCO CHANEL
WITH MODELS WEARING VARIATIONS OF THE CLASSIC

                         'CHANEL SUIT'


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:44:53 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Coco_Chanel_by_Horst_%282211541725%29.jpg)


COCO (GABRIELLE) CHANEL


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:48:13 am
(http://www.dkimages.com/discover/DKIMAGES/Discover/previews/781/557108.JPG)

THE FAMOUS MOULIN ROUGE


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:50:31 am
(http://www.robertaonthearts.com/12G23173072305.jpeg)

HENRI DE TOULOUSE-LAUTREC


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 11:59:04 am







(http://bp2.blogger.com/_ts3c6zgwPl4/Rtd0MmlnGpI/AAAAAAAAAe0/zfGghd2_ewo/s320/PARIS_CD1_FRONT_orig%5B1%5D.jpg)






                     (http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/IMC/G530~Un-Amour-de-Colombes-Posters.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 12:18:19 pm
(http://k53.pbase.com/g6/06/512406/2/72431010.zA0Wf4r4.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 12:42:07 pm
(http://www.neystadt.org/john/album/Paris-2005/Paris/DSCN6432-Paris-Versalle-Kissing-Couple.JPG)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 12:49:45 pm
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Places/Images/Paris/rodin-the-kiss-ga.jpg)





                                   (http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2007/2052019996_b841225e7a.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2008, 12:55:29 pm
            (http://www.soulcatcherstudio.com/images/erwitt_show/Paris_Eiffel100th.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 11:41:53 am
      (http://lh4.ggpht.com/dr.ashley.ng/RksuZ3Bp4ZI/AAAAAAAAAlM/J4Ye-b12bZo/IMGP7652.JPG?imgmax=576)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 11:47:35 am
(http://www.resort-reporter.com/images/paris_lovers.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 11:50:15 am
                       (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/231/484946364_2a1cb074d1.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 11:59:56 am
                 (http://kissfish.de/luxembourg_kiss_sk_ab.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:27:43 pm
(http://www.annique.com/images/woa/france2006/paris/Robert_Doisneau.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:30:01 pm
                                 (http://bp1.blogger.com/_7wqNMgeeq5k/RhPBWiUqrqI/AAAAAAAAABk/-YTbuZHzWBs/s400/SCAN0015.JPG)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:37:46 pm
(http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Photography/Images/POD/f/french-kiss-450391-sw.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:40:16 pm
                     (http://www.poster.net/arellano-migdalia/arellano-migdalia-a-paris-kiss-7001236.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:42:49 pm
                          (http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1196/607638745_c42f3b1379.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:46:56 pm
                    (http://www.ivyparisnews.com/images/2008/05/06/parisledoyen_kiss_2_300.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:50:24 pm
                         (http://www.lastpatriot.com/photos/europe/7400-paris-park-kiss.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:52:52 pm
(http://www.agallery.com/Pages/photographers/photos/ronis/WIR13116CoupleKissLO.jpg)





(http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Places/Images/Paris/paris-kiss-ga.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:54:27 pm
                 (http://www.pbase.com/nivlek28/image/65587984.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 01:56:31 pm
                                               (http://www.jwegesin.com/files/kiss.png)





(http://www.getfrank.co.nz/assets/images/Halfwidth/NewFolder-2/_resampled/ResizedImage450329-kiss.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 02:01:52 pm
                         (http://www.clwilliamson.net/Images/old_paris_morning_l.jpg)



Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 02:07:00 pm
                            (http://europedaze2.home.comcast.net/art/kiss.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 02:56:03 pm
                                    (http://images.teamsugar.com/files/upl0/0/88/12_2008/km_2.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 03:00:50 pm
                                (http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1267/536252456_6e40f1ce11.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 03:12:27 pm
                         (http://www.alanwickes.org/paris_kiss.jpg)









Les Amoreaux Aux Poireaux.





A spray of jonquils signals his intention,
almost romantic, though hardly innocent;
they say "I love you", never do they mention
"I want you now" was what he really meant.

Ostensibly an image of seduction,
his bag of leeks turns passion into pathos;
his ardour undermined in de-construction,
his coy desire collapses into bathos.

And those of us beyond love's futile flush,
perceive a simple truth; Cupid's alluring
violence may deify a teenage crush,
but nameless household gods sustain enduring

Love; so let this casual Parisian kiss
be dedicated to domestic bliss.



http://www.alanwickes.org/les_amoreaux_aux_poireaux1.htm


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 03:56:31 pm
(http://www.starstore.com/acatalog/baiser-kiss-poster.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:06:56 pm
(http://www.franksfilms.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/paris_je_taime-4.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:15:28 pm
                                      (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/4/8060056_df5ed9e19b.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:19:45 pm
                           (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/37/91400885_ea44cdc173.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:22:39 pm
                   (http://img.metro.co.uk/i/pix/2007/01/hiltonguyX17_450x512.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:27:33 pm
                          (http://iphotocentral.com/Photos/VintageWorks_Images/Full/5575aChanu.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:35:27 pm
(http://lh3.ggpht.com/chankonglim/RyScCJhK6VI/AAAAAAAACAI/CB6y51e3FY8/Kissing.JPG?imgmax=576)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:38:04 pm
                    (http://emiliewood.com/photos/mars2006/26-mar-06-doisneau.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:41:04 pm
                   (http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3127/2387628189_588eea98e4.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:47:27 pm
                 (http://www.elzevironze.com/Images/EiffelCoupleKissing.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 04:50:36 pm
(http://pro.corbis.com/images/CB044606.jpg?size=572&uid=%7BB0623D87-5A2B-4ED8-8C31-9C8C57C36BD1%7D)



I SUPPOSE ONE COUD SAY THIS IS THE FRENCH VERSION OF THIS FAMOUS AMERICAN  K I S S ........







(http://www.starstore.com/acatalog/Kissing-On-VJ-DP0259.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 05:11:54 pm
                       (http://farm1.static.flickr.com/82/224981207_8681a4e37c.jpg?v=0)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 05:24:43 pm
                  (http://cache.virtualtourist.com/1210447-Dancing_to_Mitterands_MADNESS-Paris.jpg)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 05:39:16 pm
                    (http://www.thewesthome.us/images/Eiffel_kissing.jpg)                  



                         


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 05:40:23 pm
(http://www.cambridge2000.com/gallery/images/PA1016856e.jpg)

                                                        276 Boulevard Raspail:

                                            Wall sculpture of a man kissing a woman






                   


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 09, 2008, 06:05:33 pm
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/02/media/The-Kiss.jpg)

AUGUSTE RODIN

"THE KISS"


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 18, 2008, 08:14:20 am
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/images/080707-paris-humans_big.jpg)

Ancient River Camps Are Oldest Proof of Humans in Paris 
 The flint arrowheads seen above are among thousands
found during a recent dig in Paris that unearthed human
campsites dated to about 7600 B.C.,
archaeologists announced in July 2008.

The sites were likely used by nomadic hunter-gatherers
and are the oldest evidence of human occupation within
modern city boundaries, dig leaders say.

Photograph by
Denis Gliksman,
courtesy Inrap
 


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 18, 2008, 08:19:56 am








                               Ancient River Camps Are Oldest Proof of Humans in Paris






Kate Ravilious
for National Geographic News
July 7, 2008

Hunter-gatherers who made temporary camps along the Seine about 9,500 years ago were among
the earliest "residents" of what is now Paris, archaeologists say.

A recent dig near the river revealed thousands of arrowhead bits and animal bones from about 7600
B.C. that scientists say are the oldest evidence of human occupation within modern city boundaries.

Previously the oldest such evidence was a 4500 B.C. fishing village near the current Gare de Lyon railway station.

Nomadic tribes camped at the newfound site for periods of days or even weeks while they collected flint to make arrowheads for hunting, the dig team believes.

"It was a strategic choice, next to the river," said Bénédicte Souffi, a lead archaeologist on the dig.

Chris Scarre, a French prehistory expert from Durham University in the U.K., said the hunter-gatherers may also have used the river "for transport and for fishing as well, of course, as a ready supply of fresh water."

Although there is no evidence of ancient river transport at the site, dugout canoes from the same time period have been found in other parts of Europe, said Scarre, who was not involved with the Paris project.






Ancient Landscape



The dig site lies on the southwest edge of the French capital, sandwiched between the Parisian beltway and the city's helicopter port.

It covers an area about the size of a U.S. football field.

The French government's archaeology agency Inrap commissioned a survey of the site in preparation for building a recycling plant.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 18, 2008, 08:22:26 am
(http://ajax.verkley.com/Europe2002/153-France-Paris-EiffelTower-AfterDark-ViewFromTopDeck-SeineRiver.jpg)

PARIS
The Seine runs through the city








Today the area is about 820 feet (250 meters) from the Seine, but ten thousand years ago the river was probably much closer. The camps may even have been established on an island within the river.

"The likely original appearance of the River Seine, and most other major European rivers before they were embanked and controlled, would have been a braided form [with multiple channels] fringed by marshy wetlands," Scarre said.

Ancient people would have hunted mammals, such as deer and wild boar, using bows and arrows rather than spears, scholars say.

"Forest-dwelling animals may have come to the water's edge to drink, making this a good place for hunting," Scarre noted.





Preserved in Sludge



Since February 2008, Souffi and her colleagues have unearthed debris from multiple hunter-gatherer campsites, all dating to the Mesolithic period—9000 to 5000 B.C.

Researchers also uncovered larger tools made from sandstone. These include a spherical hand-held "pounder" and long blades possibly used for making arrow shafts or scraping animal skins.

"We also discovered a hearth, which could have been used for dissolving adhesive for arrowheads or for cooking game," Souffi said.

Frequent flooding of the Seine had washed layers of silt over the artifacts, sealing them in and helping to preserve them.

Finds of younger polished axes and decorated pottery indicate that the site continued to be used through the ages.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 18, 2008, 08:31:35 am









(http://www.zeenews.com/Img/2008/6/26/arrows.jpg)







                                         7,000-year-old human settlement found in Paris, France
 




Paris, June 26:
(INRAP)

Archaeologists said they had found flint arrowheads and other objects in Paris that were evidence
of human settlement some 7,000 years ago, the oldest such site ever discovered in the French capital.

The site on the banks of the river Seine was occupied by hunter-gatherers who also left a stoneware instrument they used to make arrowheads and flint scrapers for working on animal skins, said the French Archaeological Research Institute, (INRAP).

They were nomads who hunted deer and boar, said INRAP`s Benedicte Souffi, who led excavations at the site in what is today the 15th district of the French capital.

She said it appeared that the people came to the site to gather flint from the alluvial deposits of the Seine.

Archaeologists were able to work out the age of the settlement by examining bone fragments they found there, she said.

 
www.archaeologynews.com


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 18, 2008, 08:33:59 am








Ashley Washington
Hero Member

Posts: 161



    Re: 7,000 Year-Old Human Settlement Found In Paris, France
« Reply #1 on: June 27, 2008, 03:46:44 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





                              Dig shows Paris is 3,000 years older than first thought






By John Lichfield in Paris
Thursday, 26 June 2008

Paris has long been known to be a very old city but its history as a settlement has just been extended by more than 3,000 years.


An archaeological dig, whose findings were revealed yesterday, moves back Paris's first known human occupation to about 7600BC, in the Mesolithic period between the two stone ages.

An area about the size of a football field on the south-western edge of the city, close to the banks of the river Seine, has yielded thousands of flint arrowheads and fragments of animal bone. The site, between the Paris ring road and the city's helicopter port, is believed by archaeologists to have been used, nearly 10,000 years ago, as a kind of sorting and finishing station for flint pebbles washed up on the banks of the river. Once the dig is complete, the site will be occupied by a plant for sorting and recycling the refuse generated by the two million Parisians of the 21st century.

"You could say that we've come full circle," said Bénédicte Souffi, one of the two archaeologists in charge of the site. "Our ancestors were sorting rubbish from usable objects here in 7600BC. We are going to be doing much the same thing on a more elaborate scale. Maybe, there is a lesson there."

The oldest previous human settlement discovered within the Paris city boundaries dates back to about 4500BC – a fishing and hunting village beside the Seine at Bercy near the Gare de Lyon railway station. The new exploration – by Inrap, the French government agency for "preventive" archaeology on sites where new building is imminent – pushes back the history of the city to the mysterious period between the Old and New stone ages.

During the Mesolithic period, the "big game" of the Paleolithic, such as mammoth and reindeer, had disappeared from western Europe. The scattered human bands were still hunter-gatherers, and not yet farmers, but they lived in temperate forests and hunted with bows and arrows rather than spears.

The site in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, about a mile from the Eiffel Tower, has been preserved by silt from the frequent flooding of the Seine. Archaeologists believe that it was used for many centuries during the Mesolithic period, perhaps for periods of only a few weeks at a time, as a place to prospect for, and sort out, flint pebbles for cutting into arrowheads. The dig has also unearthed larger instruments made from granite. They include an almost perfectly round hand-held pounder the size of a billiard ball, and long stone blades, possibly used for making arrow shafts or scraping animal skins.

Evidence on the site suggests that it remained in use as a human settlement, on and off, until the iron age, from 800 to 500BC. Julius Caesar reported that the site of the capital was occupied by a Gaulish tribe called the Parisii in 53BC.

The Roman city of Lutece was established soon afterwards, beginning in what is now the fifth arrondissement, on the left bank of the Seine.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 18, 2008, 08:37:19 am








Ashley Washington
Hero Member

Posts: 161



    Re: 7,000 Year-Old Human Settlement Found In Paris, France
« Reply #2 on: June 27, 2008, 03:47:56 am » Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Too bad there aren't more pictures yet!


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on March 19, 2009, 07:52:07 am








                                  Sarkozy's daring design dreams for a new 'Grand Paris'
         





Susan Sachs
– Thu Mar 19, 2009
Paris

– Kings, emperors, generals, and presidents have all tinkered with the city.

It's been walled, razed, and excavated. In the zeal of modernization that seized planners in the 1970s, its skyline was pierced by a single 59-story skyscraper and its boundaries fixed in concrete by an eight-lane beltway.

Paris is once again on the drawing board. Commanded by President Nicolas Sarkozy to reimagine the capital as a "world class city," teams of internationally known architects have come up with 10 strategies for creating a metropolitan area known as Grand Paris – it's the first major redesign since the Napoleonic era.

Their ideas range from the prosaic to the fanciful. But they all say that Paris – its public transit system saturated, its periphery spoiled by ugly housing projects, and its suburbs an undefined sprawl of disconnected towns – does not work.

"It's slowly losing its vitality," says award-winning Paris architect Jean Nouvel. "What we laughingly call regional development is finished. If we want to maintain the prestige of Paris, we have to look after it."

The government hired the design teams after a competition last spring – a more optimistic time before the economic outlook in France started looking so grim. Even so, it was never entirely clear what would become of their proposals.

The political complications are formidable, given that the Paris region is made up some 400 separate local governments. A slew of master plans for urban development, big and small, already exist. And the last time anyone managed to redraw Paris on a grand scale was in the 1850s, when Emperor Louis Napoleon replaced its warren of slums with grand boulevards and perfectly aligned stone buildings.

But the opportunity to weigh in the future of an iconic city proved irresistible.

"It is fun – very expensive fun," says Richard Rogers, the British architect who also advises London and Barcelona on their blueprints for the future. "It's a fantastic thing that the French are doing."

The architectural teams, six of them French, were given the mission of envisioning the "post-Kyoto" metropolis. They were left to define the boundaries of this newly conceived Grand Paris as they saw fit, but it was to incorporate the best of sustainable design techniques, energy efficient structures, and a mix of housing for both rich and poor.

President Sarkozy is expected to give a hint of what he might do with all the plans when they go on public view at the national architecture museum next month. Summaries of the designs were presented last week, though, and the common themes are already clear.

All of the architects rejected the 1960s French solution to suburban sprawl of creating discrete new satellite cities. Instead, most proposed filling in the unused spaces of the metropolitan area – derelict land, underused public buildings, weed-filled tracts along railways and rooftops – to preserve the countryside and make the metropolis more compact.

"I don't know any other big city where the heart is so disconnected from periphery," says Mr. Rogers. "The city is cut in pieces." His team suggested starting by building parks alongside five disused suburban rail lines – an investment that he predicted would increase property values and generate economic development.

Most of the planners urged intense use of space within the limits of historic Paris. They talked of high-speed trams on top of the beltways, malls on top of subway stations, and gardens on the five square miles of rooftops in Paris. A new mixed-use neighborhood in the center of Paris could arise, they said, if only the neglected stretch of land between the Gare du Nord and Gare de l'Est train stations in central Paris were freed up for private development.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on March 19, 2009, 07:53:10 am








More lyrical suggestions came from Roland Castro, a Paris architect who once ran for president as the candidate of the Movement for a Practical Utopia. His team included a sociologist, a writer, and a philosopher. "We applied the philosopher's concept that in every man there is a poet, and the city in which he lives there should be mystery, secrets, and surprises."

Mr. Castro, known for his quixotic campaign in the 1990s to relocate government ministries to the suburbs, would like to smash the old Paris model of concentrating wealth and power in the center. His proposals for Grand Paris include a 250-acre central park surrounded by modern skyscrapers for La Corneuve, now a grim suburb of anonymous subsidized housing projects, and integrating river boats into the regional public transit system.

Paris architect Antoine Grumbach said every world-class metropolis, from London to Beijing, has an opening to the sea. His team proposed a Grand Paris stretching westward along the Seine River valley to the port of Le Havre, a linear but coherent whole that encompasses the stretches of factories, universities, farmland, and cities that already hug the river.

Six out of 10 people in France live in the Île-de-France, the administrative region that now includes the municipality of Paris. Mr. Grumbach likes to describe it as the design equivalent of a fried egg, with the suburbs sprawling in an unbounded mess from the compact yolk of the historic capital.

Commuter rail lines and roads radiate from the center. People may live in one suburb and work in another, but they all have to change trains in a jam packed station in central Paris. So, no grand urban plan will really carry the region into the future, the designers all said, unless it brings the heavily populated working-class suburbs out of their economic and geographic isolation.

"The riots brought the metropolitan crisis to even the people of Paris," said Christian de Portzamparc, another Paris architect, referring to the 2005 and 2007 unrest that started in the suburbs and spread to major cities. "There are places where the public authorities should step in, where value would be generated immediately," he added. "If you're going to take an all-out approach, you'll get results in 200 years."


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 17, 2009, 07:39:57 am



               (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/04/15/travel/cafe.190.jpg)









                                          La Chanson, Still Alive in a Parisian Gem






By Ciara O'Rourke
TheNewYork Times
April 15, 2009
PARIS

| Maybe it’s the waiter thumbing his nose at the indoor smoking laws by taking a drag behind the bar, but Le Limonaire (18 cité Bergère; 45-23-33-33), a tiny bistro off Grands Boulevards in Paris, conjures days gone by unlike any other in a city awash with cafes.

A crowd spilling onto the cobblestone terrace reveals the discreet haunt toward 10 p.m., when a plucky roster of musicians takes the stage (Tuesdays through Sundays), singing a repertoire of French chansons. Even the contemporary numbers feel nostalgic, and on the best nights you’ll find a modern incarnation of Edith Piaf at the mic, silencing the room with pipes that might just rival the original Little Sparrow.

Once the music starts, you’re lucky to get a table — or a bite: the kitchen suspends service, if only because the waiters can’t navigate through the intimate room swollen with guests. Rubbing elbows with your neighbor is almost encouraged; the audience succumbs to a camaraderie the chanson encourages. Singalongs are frequent, raucous and sometimes poignant. It may, of course, be too many pichets of wine that warm hardened hearts; a robust selection is offered on miniature chalkboard menus line the room.

Not all is lost if you don’t speak French and can’t understand the lyrics — the impromptu chorus of a crowd is maybe even more engaging, the wine and nosh are affordable, and admission is free. The staff sends a chapeau around at the end of the night to thank the evening’s unpaid act — the price of a movie theater ticket is suggested, and that’s money probably better spent here.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 09:48:21 am







                                                    Hidden Gardens of Paris







(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/06/29/travel/29paris600.jpg)

David Brabyn
for The New York Times

Parisians can dine at garden cafes like La Muscade at the Palais Royal.

       

ELAINE SCIOLINO
The New York Times
June 29, 2008

NEXT to the Palais de la Découverte, just off the Champs-Élysées, is a flight-of-fancy sculpture of the 19th-century poet Alfred de Musset daydreaming about his former lovers. As art goes, the expanse of white marble is pretty mediocre, and its sculptor, Alphonse de Moncel, little-remembered. For me, however, it is a crucial marker. To its right is a path with broken stone steps that lead down into one of my favorite places in Paris, a tiny stage-set called Jardin de la Vallée Suisse.

Paris, France Part of the Champs-Élysées’ gardens, this “Swiss Valley” was built from scratch in the late 19th century by the park designer Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand. It is a lovely illusion, where nothing is quite what it appears at first sight. The rocks that form the pond and waterfall are sculptured from cement; so is the “wooden” footbridge. But the space — 1.7 acres of semitamed wilderness in one of the most urban swaths of Paris — has lured me, over and over again. My only companions are the occasional dog walker and the police woman making her rounds.

On a park bench there, I am enveloped by evergreens, maples, bamboo, lilacs and ivy. There are lemon trees; a Mexican orange; a bush called a wavyleaf silktassel, with drooping flowers, that belongs in an Art Nouveau painting; and another whose leaves smell of caramel in the fall. A 100-year-old weeping beech shades a pond whose waterfall pushes away the noise of the streets above. The pond, fed by the Seine, can turn murky, but the slow-moving carp don’t seem to mind, nor does the otter that surfaces from time to time.

The Swiss Valley is one of the most unusual of Paris’s more than 400 gardens and parks, woods and squares. Much grander showcases include wooded spaces like the Bois de Vincennes on the east of the city and the Bois de Boulogne on the west, and celebrations of symmetry in the heart of Paris like the Tuileries and the Luxembourg.

But I prefer the squares and parks in quiet corners and out-of-the-way neighborhoods. Many are the legacy of former President Jacques Chirac. In the 18 years he served as mayor of Paris, he put his personal stamp on his city by painting its hidden corners green.

“He took some of the pathetic, shabby squares and gardens and transformed and adorned them,” said Claude Bureau, one of the city’s great garden historians who was chief gardener of the Jardin des Plantes for more than two decades. “He appreciated beauty — of women, of nature.”

Paris’s current mayor, Bertrand Delanoë, has taken over the task. In his seven years in the job, he has created 79 acres of what City Hall calls “new green spaces.” Just this month, he transformed the open space in front of City Hall into an “ephemeral garden,” a nearly 31,000-square-foot temporary installation of 6,000 plants and trees, and even a mini-lake.

Intimate, lightly trafficked and often quirky, the small gardens of Paris can be ideal places to rest and to read. The trick is to find them. You can consult “Paris: 100 Jardins Insolites” (“Paris: 100 Unusual Gardens”), a guide by Martine Dumond whose color photos make discovery for the non-French speaker a pleasure, or explore various Web sites like www.paris-walking-tours.com/parisgardens.html. Or you can simply wander on foot, confident that around the next corner there will be something new.

You’ll find spaces for listening to a concert or watching a puppet show (like the Parc de Bagatelle in the 16th Arrondissement); church gardens (like the one enclosing the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Seventh Arrondissement); gardens with vegetable patches (like the Jardin Catherine-Labouré in the Seventh Arrondissement); oriental gardens (like the one at Unesco headquarters in the Seventh Arrondissement that was a gift of the Japanese government). There are gardens with beehives, bird preserves, out-of-fashion roses, chessboards, playgrounds, menageries, panoramic views, even a rain forest and a farm. Green spaces adjoin cemeteries, embassies, movie theaters and hotels.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 09:53:36 am



              (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/images/photo/2008/06/29/0629-PARIS/22867885.JPG)






              At the cafe-garden of the Petit-Palais, with its palm and banana trees
              and mosaic floors, marble tables and metal chairs offer the ideal setting
              to watch the museum's stone walls change from buff to tawny yellow
              as the sun moves.



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times









Even hospitals.



I doubt that most visitors to Notre-Dame Cathedral know that inside the nearby Hôtel-Dieu complex, which is still a working hospital, is a formal garden-courtyard with sculptured 30-year-old boxwoods. The hospital’s gardener replants much of the space every May — with fuchsias, sage, impatiens and Indian roses.

From the top of the flight of steps that cuts across the garden, you can find yourself all alone, looking out through the hospital’s windows to the tourist hordes outside. Every few months, the hospital’s interns choose a different costume for the male statue at the back — at the moment, he is Snow White.

(It was Mr. Bureau who told me that some of the most peaceful gardens belong to hospitals. Gardens help cure patients more quickly, he said).

The Square René Viviani on the Left Bank across from Notre-Dame is another spot that is easy to miss. But this tranquil square features what is said to be the oldest tree in Paris — a false acacia brought to France from Virginia in 1601, and now shored up with concrete posts. Sitting on a park bench in one corner yields one of the best views in Paris — Notre-Dame on the right and St.-Julien-le-Pauvre, a tiny church built in the same era on the left.

And then there are the gardens that are the back or front yards of museums. For instance, at the cafe-garden of the Petit-Palais— with its palm and banana trees and sculptures and mosaic floors lit from below — a half dozen marble tables and metal chairs offer the ideal setting to watch the museum’s stone walls change from buff to tawny yellow as the sun moves.

Inside the museum is a portrait of Alphand (whose park designs include the Bois de Boulogne, the Parc Monceau and the Parc Montsouris, as well as the Vallée Suisse) in a top hat, his pince-nez hanging from his black overcoat.

And then there are country settings like the garden of the Musée de la Vie Romantique, once the home of the 19th-century artist Ary Sheffer, at the end of a narrow path at 16, rue Chaptal in the Ninth Arrondissement. There, you can sit among the poppies, foxglove and roses and sip tea (a cafe opens in the summer) and pretend to be George Sand, who lived nearby, and whose personal effects have been assembled in a reconstructed drawing room inside (even a lock of her hair).


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 09:55:37 am



               (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/images/photo/2008/06/29/0629-PARIS/23403177.JPG)






On spring and summer Sundays, the Jardin Tino Rossi, a sliver along the Seine, turns into an impromptu dance-a-thon. For more than two decades, an informal group of singers and dancers has been taking over amphitheaters, where they dance the musette until midnight.



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times








On the other side of town, behind an alley at 100, bis, rue d’Assas in the Sixth Arrondissement, is the garden of the Zadkine Museum, which was once the home and atelier of the 20th-century Russian-born sculptor Ossip Zadkine. The sculpture-filled garden is much the same today as when he worked in wood and granite under its trees. “Come and see my pleasure house, and you’ll understand how much a man’s life can be changed by a pigeon house or by a tree,” he once wrote to a friend.

But gardens are not just museum pieces; they are active, integral parts of neighborhoods. For a bit of entertainment — even drama — on a sleepy weekend afternoon, I sometimes walk over to the Square Blomet in the 15th Arrondissement. It is the headquarters of the Union Bouliste, where games of boules are played with such verve that they continue under spotlights late at night.

The ivy covering the metal walls of the field is so old that the leaves have grown up to six inches wide. At the end of a long park-bench-lined corridor sits a little-known bronze sculpture by Joan Miró, who lived in poverty down the street in the atelier of a fellow Catalan sculptor.

On spring and summer Sundays, there is even more excitement at the Jardin Tino Rossi, a sliver along the Seine that turns into an impromptu dance-a-thon. For more than two decades, the informal group of singers and dancers that has been a fixture at the Rue Mouffetard outdoor Sunday market moves to Tino Rossi, along the Quai St.-Bernard, to party. After a wine-filled picnic, they take over one of the amphitheaters, and to the music of accordion, violin and saxophone, they sing and dance the musette until midnight. The star couple one recent Sunday was an older man, in a white shirt and shoes and Champagne-colored trousers, and his partner, a redhead in white ruffles and red sequined slippers.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 09:56:50 am



               (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/images/photo/2008/06/29/0629-PARIS/22867427.JPG)






The 17th-century Fountain of the Medicis is a peaceful oasis in the often bustling Luxembourg Gardens.

It's named after Marie de Medicis (Louis XIV's grandmother), and inspired by the city
of Florence.


Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times








For quiet magic, Paris insiders pass the time on the lawn and benches of the Square du Vert-Galant, a pointy-shaped spit of land that reminds me of the deck of a cruise ship. The westernmost tip of the Île de la Cité, it offers the Louvre on the right, the dome of the Institut de France on the left, the river on both sides and straight ahead.

The best way to access it is down two flights of stairs at the equestrian statue of Henri IV on the Pont Neuf. It was there, in the 1991 film “Les Amants du Pont Neuf” (released in the United States as “The Lovers on the Bridge”) that Juliette Binoche, as a homeless artist who is going blind, struggles to paint her companion’s portrait.

Even the city’s large, formal gardens proclaim hidden spaces. The vast Luxembourg Garden can overwhelm with too many joggers, sunbathers, musicians, newspaper readers, pony riders and tulip admirers. But find the 17th-century Fountain of the Medicis, named after Marie de Medicis (Louis XIV’s grandmother), an oasis of calm and shade inspired by the city of Florence and built on her instructions.

I am not much of a gardener, and the Jardin des Plantes in the Fifth Arrondissement, with its greenhouses and odd species and identifying labels, seemed too much like work. Until I met Mr. Bureau. He told me how his mother was a concierge in the neighborhood, and that he took his first baby steps in the vast garden. It was there, in fact, that he met his wife. She was a 17-year-old high school student, he a 21-year-old gardener fresh from military service. It was raining, and he offered her shelter in the gardener’s hut.

“Women always love gardeners,” he said. “We speak of roses and perfume. We can easily get their attention.”

He was readily persuaded to show off its secret corners, the gardens within the garden. After pointing out a Lebanese cedar planted in 1734, he took me up a spiraling stone walkway to a pergola of iron, copper, bronze, lead and even gold that is France’s oldest metal decorative construction.

Then we entered a concrete tunnel beneath the main garden that led to the Jardin Alpin, a craggy, flowering space that houses species from mountainous areas around the world. Deep inside is a valley with a stream and a leafy canopy that only the strongest beams of light can penetrate. "Here,” Mr. Bureau said, “is where lovers come to hide.”


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 09:57:49 am




               (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/06/26/travel/22867689.JPG)

                The Parc de la Turlure is next to Sacré-Coeur Basilica.


Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times








EARLY on a recent morning, I went walking around the 18th Arrondissement with François Jousse, City Hall’s main lighting engineer (and a self-appointed expert on Paris), to explore more of the city’s little-known gardens, ones I had never come across in the six years I have lived in Paris. There, as in other parts of the city, squares and parks were built in a wave of democratization in the 19th century.

Mr. Jousse showed me the Square Carpeaux, where working-class families bring their kids and where table tennis is played on permanent tables. A white statue of a woman whose arm was broken off looks over the space; a pergola sits in the center of the square.

“I love this place for what it represents: an old, authentic Paris neighborhood meeting place,” Mr. Jousse said. “I call it the anti-Luxembourg.”

We stopped by the Parc de la Turlure, a series of discreet spaces that form a sort of garden-apartment — a living room of grass, a corridor with a tilleul (linden) arcade, a “bedroom” that seems to belong to oiled women in bikinis and another for boules-playing. Abutting the Sacré-Coeur Basilica, the park has a small amphitheater that faces a wall of rushing water.

From there, we headed to the wilderness of the Jardin Sauvage St.-Vincent, a 16,000-square-foot space that since 1985 has been designated by the city as a “wild” garden, where insecticides and artificial watering are banned, and some of the most unexpected vegetation in Paris — artemisias, white nettles, wild blackberries — can be found. Unfortunately, it is open only six hours on Saturdays from April through October. Sometimes not even then. It was closed that day.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 09:59:34 am



                                   (http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/paintings-by-pierre-auguste-renoir-4.jpg)









But that disappointment led to another discovery: a tree- and bird-filled garden at the Musée de Montmartre just around the block at 12, rue Cortot, where Renoir painted “The Garden in the Rue Cortot, Montmartre,” an 1876 work that now hangs in Pittsburgh’s Carnegie Museum of Art. The Montmartre museum itself is in what was once a 17th-century abbey. Its collection includes photographs, posters, paintings and manuscripts documenting Montmartre’s 2,000-year history.


Paris, France One room, called “Party Time,” is devoted to the laissez-faire mentality of the neighborhood when it was not part of Paris proper. “Outside the walls of the city, wine is cheaper and women are less shy,” reads an information panel. From a window there, you can look down into a working vineyard no bigger than a basketball court, lovingly adorned with hostas, ferns, pansies and primrose. Purple phlox spill over a wall; wisteria drapes over a fence. (Its grapes, harvested every fall, are said to make the most expensive bad wine in the city.)

Mr. Jousse left his favorite for last: les Jardins du Ruisseau, which are not really gardens at all, at least not in the classic sense. They are a series of narrow spaces along a defunct railway track heading east out of Paris where residents have planted flowers, fruit trees, vegetables and herbs in pots.

You can look down into the space — and at its bold graffiti-painted walls. Except for special events or tours organized by City Hall, the metal door leading to a staircase down into the “gardens” is padlocked. But the 300 members of the garden association have keys.

So Mr. Jousse and I stopped by the Rez-de-Chaussée bistro at 65, rue Letort a few blocks away, and the owner, Thierry Cayla, gave us a key. Over lunch at the bistro, we joked that perhaps Mr. Cayla should turn the gardens into a tourist attraction by preparing picnic baskets for visitors.

But then, at 16.90 euros for a three-course meal, you would miss the chance for one of the best bistro bargains in Paris.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 10:01:24 am




              (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/06/26/travel/22867389.JPG)





              Depiction of poet Alfred Demusset, next to the path to
              The Jardin De La Valle Suisse



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times







WHERE TO FIND THE FLOWERS



The locations and summer hours for some of Paris’s hidden gardens:

Vallée Suisse is in the Garden of the Champs-Élysées, at the junction of the Cours de la Reine, Cours Albert 1er and Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eighth Arrondissement. Open daily 24 hours.

Jardin Tino Rossi, Quai St.-Bernard, Fifth Arrondissement; open Monday to Friday from 8 a.m. to dusk, and Saturday and Sunday, from 9 a.m. to dusk.

Jardin Catherine-Labouré, 29, rue de Babylone, Seventh Arrondissement; open Monday to Friday from 8 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday from 9 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.

The Japanese garden at Unesco headquarters, 7, place Fontenoy, Seventh Arrondissement, is open by reservation only; call 33-1-45-68-03-59.

Clos Montmartre, 14-18 rue des Saules, 18th Arrondissement; open only during the grape harvest in September.

Garden of the Hôtel-Dieu, 1, place du Parvis Notre Dame, Fourth Arrondissement; 33-1-42-34-82-34; open daily 24 hours.

Square René Viviani, 2, rue du Fouarre, Fifth Arrondissement; Monday to Friday from 8 a.m. to 8:30 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday from 9 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.

Petit-Palais, Avenue Winston Churchill, Eighth Arrondissement; 33-1-53-43-40-00; the garden is open every day except Monday from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.

Musée de la Vie Romantique, Hôtel Scheffer-Renan, 16, rue Chaptal, Ninth Arrondissement; 33-1-55-31-95-67; the garden is open every day except Monday from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m.

Musée Zadkine, 100 bis, rue d’Assas, Sixth Arrondissement; 33-1-55-42-77-20. The garden is open daily except Monday from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.

L’Union Bouliste du 15ème, 43, rue Blomet, 15th Arrondissement; 33-1-45-66-87-21; through Aug. 31, open Monday to Friday from 9:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday from 9 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.

Jardin des Plantes has several entrances: Rue Cuvier, Rue Buffon, Rue Geoffroy-St.-Hilaire or the Place Valhubert. Open daily from 7:30 a.m. to 7:45 p.m.; 33-1-40-79-56-01; www.mnhn.fr.

Square Carpeaux, 23, rue Carpeaux, 18th Arrondissement; open Monday to Friday from 8 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday from 9 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.

Parc de la Turlure, Rue de La Bonne or Rue du Chevalier de la Barre, 18th Arrondissement; open Monday to Friday from 8 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Saturday and Sunday from 9 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.

Jardin Sauvage St.-Vincent, Rue St. Vincent, 18th Arrondissement; 33-1-43-28-47-63; open only on Saturdays from 10 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m.

Les jardins du Ruisseau, next to 110, rue du Ruisseau, 18th Arrondissement; www.lesjardinsduruisseau.org, are not generally open to the public; if one of the members of the association is in, it may be open. You can make an appointment by sending an e-mail message to contact@lesjardinsduruisseau.org.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 10:04:00 am




              (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/images/photo/2008/06/29/0629-PARIS/23130471.JPG)


              The Luxemburg Gardens



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times









                                                         THE COUNTRY LIFE IN THE CITY






From hidden courtyards to tucked-away garden cafes,

Paris offers hundreds of dining spots where

the verdant surroundings might make you forget you’re in a city.





WHERE TO EAT



La Maison de l’Amérique Latine (217, boulevard St.-Germain, Seventh Arrondissement; 33-1-49-54-75-10; www.mal217.org) serves classic French cuisine in an elegant “jardin à la Française,” tucked behind two 18th-century mansions. Thirty tables under white parasols overlook two acres of manicured lawn. Expect to spend about 55 euros for dinner without wine, about $87 at $1.58 to the euro.

Les Jardins de Bagatelle (Route de Sèvres, 16th Arrondissement; 33-1-40-67-16-49) offers country dining at the edge of the city. Dinner, which might include melon soup, scallops with leek, and lemon tort, averages around 60 euros, with wine.

Le Chalet des Îles (Lac inférieur du Bois de Boulogne, 16th Arrondissement ; 33-1-42-88-04-69; www.lechaletdesiles.net): picture dinner in an island garden, in the middle of a huge park — only a few miles from the center of Paris. This rustic pink-and-green Second Empire chalet with outdoor terraces is surrounded by a lake and reachable by a minute-long boat ride. For about 50 euros, you can dine on lemon-marinated veal carpaccio with vegetables and mozzarella.

Le Saut du Loup (107, rue de Rivoli, First Arrondissement; 33-1-42-25-49-55; www.lesautduloup.com), inside the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, has an outdoor terrace overlooking the Louvre. Lunch might include gazpacho, steak with polenta and ice cream for around 40 euros.

La Muscade (36, rue de Montpensier, First Arrondissement; 33-1-42-97-51-36; www.muscade-palais-royal.com) has 30 or so tables scattered near the garden of the Palais Royal, with a lovely views of the garden’s row of lime trees. A sandwich costs about 10 euros.

Café Lenôtre (10, avenue des Champs-Élysées; Eighth Arrondissement ; 33-1-42-65-85-10; www.lenotre.fr) offers chic snacking in an elegant green setting. A club sandwich with a salad goes for 14.50 euros.





WHERE TO STAY



At the deluxe Hospes Lancaster (7, rue de Berri, Eighth Arrondissement ; 33-1-40-76-40-76; www.hotel-lancaster.fr), not far from the Arc de Triomphe, ask for a room overlooking the courtyard garden. The garden is small, but with its cork oaks and jasmine-embalmed Japanese purity, this is an exquisite refuge. A standard room costs 490 euros.

Hôtel des Grandes Écoles (75, rue du Cardinal Lemoine, Fifth Arrondissement; 33-1-43 26-79-23; www.hotel-grandes-ecoles.com) is in the Latin Quarter. It comprises three houses surrounding a beautiful flower garden. Doubles are 113 to 138 euros.

— Maia De La Baume




ELAINE SCIOLINO

is a correspondent for the
Paris bureau of The Times.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 10:15:12 am




              (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/06/26/travel/23131539.JPG)






               Intimate, lightly trafficked and often quirky, the small gardens of Paris
               can be ideal places to relax and to read.

               The trick is to find them.

                A couple in the secluded Jardin Alpin part of the Jardin des Plantes.



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times





               


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 10:18:09 am



              (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/06/26/travel/23132849.JPG)






Claude Bureau at the Jardin des Plantes, where he was chief gardener for more than two decades.

At this vast garden, he took his first baby steps and met his wife.



"Women always love gardeners,"
said Bureau.
"We speak of roses and perfume.
We can easily get their attention."



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on April 26, 2009, 11:02:22 am



              (http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/06/26/travel/22867497.JPG)






              Inside the nearby Hôtel-Dieu complex, which is still a working hospital,
              is a formal garden-courtyard with sculptured 30-year-old boxwoods.

              The hospital's gardener replants much of the space every May with
              fuchsias, sage, impatiens and Indian roses.



Photo:
Ed Alcock
for The New York Times


           
http://travel.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/travel/29gardens.html


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on May 04, 2009, 09:05:42 am







                                           Sarkozy's Big Plans for a Greater Paris






Time.com
Bruce Crumley
Paris –
Mon May 4, 2009

The frightful Battle of Paris that many observers expected has been averted - at least for now. In unveiling mammoth plans to modernize and reorganize France's capital and its surrounding suburbs, French President Nicolas Sarkozy set a flexible, all-inclusive tone. That was in stark contrast to his earlier comments (and habitual leadership style), which suggested that the creation of Greater Paris would be done his way or not at all.


But even as he called on various governing authorities, private and public organizations, and ruling conservatives and leftists alike to unite in what he called an "ambitious and difficult" undertaking, Sarkozy left two major questions unanswered, both of which promise to provoke clashes in the future: who will foot the bill, and who will rule over the huge new metropolis? (See pictures of Paris expanding.)


"Our successors will reflect upon the question of governance," Sarkozy told a crowd of dignitaries on April 29, when he presented proposals by 10 of the world's leading architects to create Greater Paris - a gigantic goal he said would fail if warring over its control undermined it from the outset. "Greater Paris is a project that does not belong to any one party, or any one camp. It affects everyone and belongs to everyone."


For now, the political friends and foes who'd already begun jostling for position to define, direct and take over the Paris of the future seem unified in excitement before the formidable project. They'll need to retain that team spirit for the long haul. At stake is the heady objective of turning Paris into a spectacular, environmentally friendly, sustainable city that then merges with its suburbs and beyond to transform the entire region into a giant, integrated economic engine. (See pictures of the French celebrating Bastille Day.)


"Greater Paris is about the capital playing a role in the European and the world economy [and becoming] a sustainable city for the post-Kyoto era," Sarkozy said in a 60-minute speech launching the project. "What I'm proposing is certainly ambitious and difficult. It's about preparing for the future."


If the urbanization proposals Sarkozy unveiled are any indication, that future is going to be really, really big. They call for the demolition of what's been dubbed the "invisible wall" between Paris and its surrounding suburbs - including those that contain the blighted housing projects whose residents ignited the nation-wide rioting of 2005. Under the plan, construction and business development will broaden economic and cultural activity from its current focus on the 1,130 sq. ft. (105 sq m) intra-muros Paris and its population of two million, and extend that to the 12 million-strong inhabitants of the surrounding Ile-de-France region (as a comparison, Greater London has a population of 8.5 million). In so doing, Greater Paris, it is hoped, would further boost the Ile-de-France's 30% share of French GDP with the creation of economic and research clusters producing synergies and new jobs.


As an initial step, Sarkozy has already announced a $47 million project to significantly enhance the Paris region's aging public transport system, which is swamped by 10 million riders every day. In addition to extending existing lines and modernizing rolling stock, the plan calls for the creation of a 90-mile (145-km) automated rail system circling Paris. By connecting the clusters of suburban business centers like La DÉfense to the residential areas surrounding Paris, the new elevated MÉtro will allow suburban commuters a direct route to work, instead of their current over-crowded daily slog through Paris. (See pictures of Sarkozy in the U.K.)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on May 04, 2009, 09:08:11 am







At the same time, one section of the railway will bisect the circular line through the city, providing more direct routes to both Paris airports at either end. That ramped up transport system will also prove vital to meeting another major Paris challenge: keeping its title as the world's leading tourist destination by luring visitors to stay in and around the capital.


But that's not all. Proposals by architects such as Briton Richard Rogers, Italian Paola Vigano, and Frenchmen Jean Nouvel and Christian de Portzamparc involve building futuristic skyscrapers with huge hanging gardens; creating vast city-center parks, green spaces, and even a new forest with a million carbon-battling trees near Charles de Gaulle airport; and renovating disused banks of the Seine. The river, meanwhile, is to be developed into a major transport link for goods to and from the Channel port of Le Havre - which, thanks to a new high-speed train track, will itself become a virtual suburb of Paris just a one-hour ride away.


These proposals will not only constitute the biggest alteration of Paris since Baron Georges-Eugene Haussmann reconfigured the capital around its broad boulevards nearly 150 years ago, they will also seek to create a vast, socially and economically self-perpetuating metropolis from what is now a patchwork of municipalities and regions. Despite the enormity of that goal, Sarkozy wants to move fast. He's calling for financing offers from an array of public and private actors to be tabled in July. And in October, he will introduce legislation to strip down construction, zoning, and other laws that have traditionally slowed development in the city. Sarkozy also said he wants construction on the transport system to begin by 2012 - just in time for his re-election campaign - and wants much of the work of the Greater Paris plan completed within a decade. (Read: "What's Wrong With a Museum of French History?")


However, with cash-strapped municipal and regional governments in the dark about how much Sarkozy intends to contribute to the effort, most are expected to come in with pretty stingy contribution proposals - something likely to provoke a return of Sarkozy's authoritarian tone. The sparks that fly over money will be nothing, though, compared to the battle those same local leaders will likely put up when they realize they're bound to lose most of their power to a Greater Paris so enormous it will doubtless be administered by a new super-entity - possibly an organ of the state.


See pictures of Paris expanding.



http://news.yahoo.com/s/time/20090504/wl_time/08599189529000


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on May 04, 2009, 10:16:32 am



             (http://www.eureka-reservation.com/images/villes/paris/paris-restaurant-les-deux-magots-b.jpg)









                                                Sleeping and eating - the French do it best
           





Sophie Hardach
– Mon May 4, 2009
PARIS
(Reuters)

– True to their reputation as leisure-loving gourmets, the French spend more time sleeping and eating than anyone else among the world's wealthy nations, according to a study published Monday.

The average French person sleeps almost nine hours every night, more than an hour longer than the average Japanese and Korean, who sleep the least in a survey of 18 members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Despite their siesta habit, Spaniards rank only third in the poll after Americans, who sleep more than 8.5 hours.

And while more and more French people grab a bite at fast-food chains these days or wolf down a sandwich at their desk, they still spend more than two hours a day eating.

That means their meals are twice as long as those of the average Mexican, who dedicates just over an hour a day to food, the OECD's "Society at a Glance" report on work, health and leisure in Asia, Europe and North and South America found.

The Japanese, scrimping on sleep and burdened with long commutes and working hours, still manage to spend close to two hours a day eating and drinking, placing them third behind New Zealanders.

The Japanese like to spend what remains of their scarce free time watching television or listening to the radio. This takes up 47 percent of leisure time in Japan.

Turks, on the other hand, spend more than a third of their leisure time entertaining friends.

The survey showed that the split between work and leisure time within certain countries is striking.

"Italian men have nearly 80 minutes a day of leisure more than women. Much of the additional work of Italian women is apparently spent cleaning the house," the OECD said in a statement.

The OECD has 30 members. The survey covers only the countries for which appropriate figures were available.



(Editing by Robert Woodward)


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on June 29, 2009, 09:48:14 am








                                                   Capturing the beat of 1950s Paris 






(http://_guhttp://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/45971000/jpg/_45971283ests_topfoto.jpg)
 
Journalists, cameramen and fashion designers relax in the Beat Hotel in 1960



BBC News
June 25, 2009

Writers and artists have been gathering in Paris to celebrate the 50th anniversary of William Burroughs's book Naked Lunch. The book was written in the Beat Hotel - a hangout for photographers, models and writers - and Christine Finn recently visited to try to find remnants of beat culture.

The members of this international literary crowd have been trying to lose themselves here in Paris. Literally.

They are doing what the French call "deriving". It means throwing out the map, going with the flow, taking to the streets in a form of cartographic anarchy that can lead anywhere, or nowhere. Left, right, left ,right, right, left, left, left.

The syncopated rhythm of this random traversing is entirely appropriate. The group are all fans of the Beat culture, the movement that celebrated jazz and doing things differently.

Naked Lunch was initially banned in the US.

The people who have come here to mark the Burroughs anniversary and to remember Beat culture, are attending
a host of events and exhibitions.

But for many of them, the highlight is the pilgrimage to a thin street on the Left Bank, to that beat-up refuge of creativity, the Beat Hotel itself.

A portrait of the author on show at an exhibition called Naked Lunch at 50 shows William Burroughs staring out of the frame, behind him a series of metal baskets.

It seems the author compiled this particular book by randomly placing pages of his writing in whatever basket he fancied - top, middle, top, bottom, middle, middle.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on June 29, 2009, 09:52:04 am









Free to 'derive'



The man who took that Burroughs portrait was the last resident of the Beat Hotel.



(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/45969000/jpg/_45969374_harold_chapman282.jpg)
 
Harold Chapman remained a resident in the Beat Hotel until it closed



He is the British photographer, Harold Chapman, who is 82 and still taking pictures, albeit now digital ones.

He is also a friend of mine and in recent weeks I have been mining his memories.

Harold captured thousands of images of the Beats.

From the poets Allen Ginsberg and Geoffrey Corso to now-forgotten names. He spoke their language.

In the 1950s, he had hitch-hiked to Paris from suburban England wanting to do his own thing, he found Rue Git le Coeur.

A night job taking Polaroid shots of street crowds left him free by day to "derive", snatching the unexpected on the streets.

He likes the description of "a burglar with a camera."


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on June 29, 2009, 09:56:49 am









Prestigious images



His landlady was the formidable Madame Rachou, who craftily monitored the activities of guests with a panel of bulbs on her front desk. They glowed according to how much electricity was being used in each room.

Harold used his bed-sheets, as well as his bed, to fashion a makeshift darkroom. He ate well on market discards.

I can re-trace his food-gathering routes, but it would be impossible now to follow his other centime-saving practice, foraging in the street for scraps of camera film.


  Up in my attic room, I listened to recordings he had made of how the hotel used to be. The interior: dark hall, dust, paint peeling, bust doors, cracked windows
 
Remarkably, some of his best known Beat images, now displayed in prestigious international galleries, were captured on small scraps of celluloid salvaged from unused ends of film thrown away by newsreel cameramen.

The Beat Hotel closed in 1963.

Harold had moved from room to room until he was the last left to turn out the lights. Madame Rachou and her bulbs had retired.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on June 29, 2009, 09:58:08 am









Fragrant atmosphere



When it was relaunched as the Hotel de Vieux Paris in the 1990s, it had gone markedly upmarket, from Beat to boutique. Now it is getting a Naked Lunch plaque.

Beat fans have long made the pilgrimage.

Inspired by Harold's tales, I recently spent a night there.

Up in my attic room, I listened to recordings he had made of how the hotel used to be. The interior: dark hall, dust, paint peeling, bust doors, cracked windows.

A Turkish toilet on each floor - two footplates, a hole in the ground - and no lavatory paper, just a telephone directory.

Another Beat Hotel resident, Verta Kali Smart, playing an African piano of flattened bicycle spokes, the sound from the bar, fierce arguments, solo rages, laughter, coughing, singing, crying.

And he remembered the smells: perfumes, marijuana, Gauloises, oil paint and food. People often cooked in their rooms.

Others trawled the corridors for a sniff of something cooking in hope of a meal.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on June 29, 2009, 09:59:36 am










'Flea-bag shrine'



Today the whole building would be viewed as an art installation, but in its time it was dismissed by some critics as "a flea-bag shrine".



(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/45969000/jpg/_45969611_guestbook226_finn.jpg)

Despite going upmarket, the hotel still attracts fans of Beat culture



Another guest, the Beat poet Harold Norse, who died this month, predicted the hotel would one day be "a flea-bag shrine visited by art historians".

That image of Burroughs with the wire baskets is on the mantel piece at Harold's home on England's south coast.

It was the first of several photos he took of the quiet author known as the Invisible Man.

I asked how he had got to take it, expecting a complex tale of Beat Hotel favours. Instead, he had simply heard Burroughs was being interviewed for a magazine.

When the door to Room 15 opened, and the journalist and photographer were ushered in, Harold followed, took one shot, and made his exit. The cat burglar with a camera had snatched the cream.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2009, 10:40:49 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/07/04/travel/frugal480.jpg)
 
A trader in unusual trinkets at the Porte de Clignancourt.
A teddy bear missing an eye.
An Air France handbag.
Empty tins of Soviet-era caviar.
Tripods and traffic lights.
A lava lamp.
Fur coats and cheap suits.
A bad painting of ships under full sail.
Piles of antique leather camera cases.

And nowhere to maneuver.










                                    Hunting For Treasure In Paris' "Marches Aux Puces"






Travel,
Ed Alcock
The New York Times
July 1, 2009

This was the flea market along and around the Rue de Bretagne on an afternoon in late May: crammed with bric-a-brac; shoppers swerving, stopping, accelerating and trying not to step on the toes of the people dining at the outdoor cafes; and me, the Frugal Traveler, hunting not just for a bargain but for something truly special — without, at first, much luck.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2009, 10:46:00 am
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The marchés aux puces, or flea markets, of Paris are legendary. In fact, the name itself originated at the biggest and most famous, St.-Ouen, just outside the city’s ring road at Porte de Clignancourt, where back in the 1880s (according to ParisPuces.com, a Web site run by the Association des Puces de Paris St. Ouen) an “unknown bargain hunter” looked down from nearby fortifications, observed junk dealers selling scrap metal, rags and old furniture, and exclaimed, “My word, but it’s a market of fleas!”
Apocryphal? Perhaps, but whatever the origin of the term, les puces, as they’re now known, are synonymous with treasure hunting. In the 120 years since St.-Ouen coalesced, other markets have sprung up in every corner of the city, and in many different forms. During my Frugal Traveler trip to Paris, I hoped to explore a few, find some prized items and — fingers crossed — successfully bargain for something I loved.

The Rue de Bretagne, in the northern part of the Marais, was, though chaotic, a good starting point. Technically, this was not a marché aux puces but a vide-grenier — an attic-emptying. Vide-greniers are the least formal markets, popping up in a location for as little as a day. (See www.vide-greniers.org for a schedule of vide-greniers throughout France.) Just about anybody can sell their knickknacks there — and that’s both their appeal and their challenge.

I waded through the foot traffic, unsure of how and where to stop, or what price was right for a particular object. One stand was selling a metal sign, written in Hindi, warning, “Danger! High voltage!” What is such a sign worth? How can anyone be an expert in Hindi signs — not to mention old LPs and amateur paintings and midcentury desks and gooseneck lamps — and stay sane amid the frenzy?

About to lose it, I spotted a rack of children’s clothes, and in short order had bought for my daughter a hand-knit, machine-washable, rainbow-striped cardigan with pearlescent buttons. It cost 10 euros, or $14.43 at $1.43 to the euro — a bargain even I understood.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2009, 10:51:02 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/07/01/travel/frugal-frames-190.jpg)









After the vide-grenier, I was ready for a proper flea, but not yet St.-Ouen. Following the advice of a family friend who’s lived in Paris for years, I started with the Marché aux Puces de la Porte de Vanves, on the south side of Paris. Vanves, open weekends, 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., the friend wrote by e-mail, wasn’t as high-quality as St.-Ouen, but had better prices. A friend of a friend, she added, allegedly “bought a genuine Kees van Dongen painting there … for just about nothing.”

On a grim Saturday morning threatening rain, I rode the Métro to the southern edge of the city and began looking for my own van Dongen. Vanves was set up in a much more orderly manner than the vide-grenier — a single path, lined by vendors with folding tables, that arced around a soccer pitch. There were several “we’ve got it all” stalls, but many were specialists. I saw vintage Art Deco paper and solid metal tools once used by artisans whose professions no longer exist. An antiquarian book dealer sold first editions of Émile Zola (160 euros and up) and “Et On Tuera Tous les Affreux” (“And We’ll Kill All the Ugly Ones”), by the cult novelist Boris Vian. The novel cost 80 euros so I passed on it, though I’ve since seen it online for as much as $350.

Just before the rain came down hard, I found La Libre Caverne des Illustrateurs, a stall that sold drawings and paintings by little-known, often unnamed artists. A 1949 pencil sketch of Sengho, a village in what was then French colonial Guinea, caught my eye — the sharp details, the simplicity of the scene, the lack of sentimentality. I also liked a watercolor of a fisherman, done in the 1930s by André Galland, an illustrator whose posters sell for $100 to $2,100, according to Dustin Stein at Galerie Mistinguett, in Great Neck, N.Y., which specializes in vintage posters.

Individually, they were 15 euros, but when I asked the vendor, Mikaël Kervennic (33-6-1116-6057), for a discount, he let me have the two for 25 euros in all.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2009, 10:55:25 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/07/01/travel/frugal-photo-190.jpg)









With one successful bargaining attempt under my belt, it was time to brave St.-Ouen, open Saturday, Sunday and Monday, 9:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. On the way up north to Porte de Clignancourt, I imagined a snake pit of buyers and sellers and traders and dealers fighting over dug-from-the-basement Rembrandts and pre-Revolutionary cutlery sets.

But St.-Ouen was orderly. Occupying several blocks, it was divided into separate, warrenlike markets specializing in different products. Well, sort of. Skimming ParisPuces.com, I couldn’t figure out how, say, the Dauphine market, which sold Renaissance period dressers and industrial art, was unlike the Biron, where you could find “luxury goods and gilt objects.” And so I just began at the first market I came to, the Vernaison, where the Puces de St.-Ouen opened as an organized institution in 1920.

Unlike the vide-grenier and Vanves, the Marché de Vernaison was easy to navigate. The vendors weren’t using folding tables — they operated out of open-faced storefronts, leaving plenty of room to wander in and out, or just walk on by. And the objects they were selling were indeed of higher quality — and, as my friend had warned, more expensive.


Title: Re: PARIS, France
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2009, 10:58:50 am
(http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2009/07/04/travel/frugal-couch190.jpg)









A pair of leather club chairs, broken-in but sturdy, cost 2,200 euros. Two painted metal dragons, made in the early 20th century and meant to adorn walls, cost 750 euros as a set. The fuel tank from a Mustang fighter was 12,500 euros. A selection of striking 18th- and 19th-century Japanese lithographs seemed almost reasonable at 50 to 300 euros. The initial price was often not the only problem: A set of six painted wooden chairs, for example, cost 650 euros, but their vendor explained it would cost that much again to send them to my home in New York.

At the showroom of Pierre Héteau (Alley 1, Stand 37; 33-6-1050-6566), I found my first deal. Among shelf upon shelf of copper pots — the kind of gorgeously made cookware you’d never actually use, with delicate engravings and patterns on every shiny surface — I found a tire-bouchon, or corkscrew, its handle made of twisty old wood, for just 3 euros. As I paid for it, Mr. Héteau, a hefty, steel-haired man with a thick mustache and a blue apron, explained that he’d sold over 500 pieces of this beautiful cookware to David Bouley and indeed was about to send Mr. Bouley the huge copper alembic, used for making Calvados, that occupied much of the floor space.

Did the alcohol distiller, which cost 8,000 euros, still work?

“Percé, hélas,” he sighed. It had a hole.

A few doors down from Mr. Héteau’s shop was a stand filled with homey, prewar relics (Alley 1, Stand 29; 33-6-0349-6546). As tinkly old jazz played on a stereo, I sifted through piles of vintage fabrics, eventually settling on a 1930s white tablecloth with a red embroidered geometric pattern — very Deco, but 88 euros. I was determined to get it for less, so the salesman and I began negotiations. First, we discovered that three of the six matching napkins were missing, so that brought the price down to 80 euros. Then I countered: Surely he could do better?

Seventy-five, he said.

If he could do 75, then why not 70?

He called his boss, Florence Nugue. I waited. He put the phone down. He nodded. Victory!

But, I instantly wondered, should I have bargained harder? Possibly, but at least I’d saved 18 euros. And now I have this very nice tablecloth, on which my daughter, wearing her new sweater, can spill wine from a bottle that I’ve opened with my new corkscrew.


Vivent les puces!