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Egypt & the Pyramids => Egypt: Latest Discoveries => Topic started by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:28:25 am



Title: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:28:25 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/nm/20080605/2008_06_05t092735_450x321_us_egypt_pyramid.jpg?x=400&y=285&sig=CfpWy3lvUeF1uqi9la_Hfw--)










                                             Egypt Uncovers 'Missing' Pyramid Of A Pharaoh





By KATARINA KRATOVAC,
Associated Press Writer
Thu Jun 5, 2008
 
SAQQARA, Egypt - Egyptian archaeologists unveiled on Thursday a 4,000-year-old "missing pyramid" that is believed to have been discovered by an archaeologist almost 200 years ago and never seen again.
 
Zahi Hawass, Egypt's antiquities chief, said the pyramid appears to have been built by King Menkauhor, an obscure pharaoh who ruled for only eight years.

In 1842, German archaeologist Karl Richard Lepsius mentioned it among his finds at Saqqara, referring to it as number 29 and calling it the "Headless Pyramid" because only its base remains. But the desert sands covered the discovery, and no archaeologist since has been able to find Menkauhor's resting place.

"We have filled the gap of the missing pyramid," Hawass told reporters on a tour of the discoveries at Saqqara, the necropolis and burial site of the rulers of ancient Memphis, the capital of Egypt's Old Kingdom, about 12 miles south of Cairo.

The team also announced the discovery of part of a ceremonial procession road where high priests, their faces obscured by masks, once carried mummified sacred bulls worshipped in the ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis.

The pyramid's base — or the superstructure as archeologists call it — was found after a 25-foot-high mound of sand was removed over the past year and a half by Hawass' team.

Hawass said the style of the pyramid indicates it was from the Fifth Dynasty, a period that began in 2,465 B.C. and ended in 2,325 B.C. That would put it about two centuries after the completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza, believed to have been finished in 2,500 B.C.

Another proof of its date, Hawass says, was the discovery inside the pyramid of a gray granite lid of a sarcophagus, of the type used at that time.

The rectangular base, at the bottom of a 15 foot-deep pit dug out by workers, gives little indication of how imposing the pyramid might have once been. Heaps of huge rocks, many still partially covered in sand and dust, mark the pyramid's walls and entrance, and a burial chamber was discovered inside.

Archaeologists have not found a cartouche — a pharaoh's name in hieroglyphs — of the pyramid's owner. But Hawass said that based on the estimated date of the pyramid he was convinced it belonged to Menkauhor.

Work continues at the site, where Hawass said he expected to unearth "subsidiary" pyramids around Menkauhor's main one, and hoped to find inscriptions there to back up his claim.

The partial ceremonial procession road unveiled Thursday dates back to the Ptolemaic period, which ran for about 300 years before 30 B.C.

It runs alongside Menkauhor's pyramid, leading from a mummification chamber toward the Saqqara Serapium, a network of underground tombs where sacred bulls were interred, discovered by French archaeologist August Mariette in 1850.

A high priest would carry the mummified bulls' remains down the procession road — the only human allegedly allowed to walk on it — to the chambers where the bulls would be placed in sarcophagi, Hawass said.

Ancient Egyptians considered Apis Bulls to be incarnations of the city god of Memphis and connected with fertility and the sun-cult. A bull would be chosen for its deep black coloring and would be required to have a single white mark between the horns. Selected by priests and honored until death, it was then later mummified and buried in the underground galleries of the Serapium.

The procession route's discovery "adds an important part to our knowledge of the Old Kingdom and its rituals," Hawass said.

The sprawling archaeological site at Saqqara is most famous for the Step Pyramid of King Djoser — the oldest of Egypt's over 100 pyramids, built in the 27th century B.C.

Although archaeologists have been exploring Egypt for some 200 years, Hawass says only a third of what lies underground in Saqqara has been discovered.

"You never know what secrets the sands of Egypt hide," he said. "I always believe there will be more pyramids to discover."



Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:32:03 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.13fc6e24d6d446a19987c46ba72108ac.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn106.jpg?x=237&y=345&sig=x_OdMbzrJlnF2rAmtcNcog--)

Egypt's chief archeologist Zahi Hawass
 talks to the media at the site of a so-
called 'missing' pyramid, currently only
a heap of rocks at the bottom of a dug-
out pit shown to media Thursday,
June 5, 2008, at Saqqara, south of
Cairo, Egypt.

Hawass says his team has uncovered
the missing pyramid of an ancient Pharaoh
who ruled more than 4,000 years ago and
a ceremonial procession road where
High Priests carried mummified remains of
sacred bulls worshipped in Memphis, the
capital of Egypt's Old Kingdom.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)








(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/nm/20080605/2008_06_05t092745_450x305_us_egypt_pyramid.jpg?x=400&y=270&sig=x76vHWVoFxH7mDKK19WHGg--)






Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:37:06 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.7fc882e4eb0c49dab1a5f4b45f76e53f.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn105.jpg?x=400&y=257&sig=UWjD78WOIaeOlulTuKjUXA--)

Egypt's chief archeologist Zahi Hawass, front, walks next to
a gray granite slab, part of a sarcophagus, at the site of a
so-called 'missing' pyramid, currently only a heap of rocks at
the bottom of a dugout pit shown to media Thursday, June 5,
2008, at Saqqara, south of Cairo, Egypt.

Hawass says his team has uncovered the missing pyramid of
an ancient Pharaoh who ruled more than 4,000 years ago
and a ceremonial procession road where High Priests carried
mummified remains of sacred bulls worshipped in Memphis,
the capital of Egypt's Old Kingdom.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:40:51 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.593bf55436b14c3081e48ec9bea9fc88.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn104.jpg?x=400&y=193&sig=hoWvjlocB8O6tYcoQDHmDg--)

Workers are seen at the site of a so-called 'missing' pyramid,
currently only a heap of rocks at the bottom of a dugout pit
shown to media Thursday, June 5, 2008, at Saqqara, south
of Cairo, Egypt.

Egypt's chief archeologist Zahi Hawass says his team has un-
covered the missing pyramid of an ancient Pharaoh who ruled
more than 4,000 years ago and a ceremonial procession road
where High Priests carried mummified remains of sacred bulls
worshipped in Memphis, the capital of Egypt's Old Kingdom.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:43:58 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.acfde9ffd2e54101b02425a869a5760c.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn103.jpg?x=400&y=264&sig=oDuM2jYMch0G3eRghdnKuw--)

A worker dusts off a gray granite slab, part of a sarcophagus,
at the site of a so-called 'missing' pyramid, currently only a
heap of rocks at the bottom of a dugout pit shown to media
Thursday, June 5, 2008, at Saqqara, south of Cairo, Egypt.

Egypt's chief archeologist Zahi Hawass says his team has un-
covered the missing pyramid of an ancient Pharaoh who ruled
more than 4,000 years ago and a ceremonial procession road
where High Priests carried mummified remains of sacred bulls
worshipped in Memphis, the capital of Egypt's Old Kingdom.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:46:56 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.3897a97a22b1491ea6411f0390efb497.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn102.jpg?x=400&y=271&sig=5DljIGMDtxcx_CKS_jI8Iw--)

Workers are seen at the site of a so-called 'missing' pyramid,
currently only a heap of rocks at the bottom of a dugout pit
shown to media Thursday, June 5, 2008, at Saqqara, south
of Cairo, Egypt.

Egypt's chief archeologist Zahi Hawass says his team has un-
covered the missing pyramid of an ancient Pharaoh who ruled
more than 4,000 years ago and a ceremonial procession road
where High Priests carried mummified remains of sacred bulls
worshipped in Memphis, the capital of Egypt's Old Kingdom.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:50:02 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.8c22b4408c494594955d818eeb211e44.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn101.jpg?x=229&y=345&sig=biuI_A7.3GSg7_vZpIA5jg--)

Workers are seen at the site of a
so-called 'missing' pyramid,
currently only a heap of rocks at
the bottom of a dugout pit shown
to media Thursday, June 5, 2008,
at Saqqara, south of Cairo, Egypt.

Egypt's chief archeologist Zahi
Hawass says his team has un-
covered the missing pyramid of
an ancient Pharaoh who ruled
more than 4,000 years ago and
a ceremonial procession road
where High Priests carried
mummified remains of sacred
bulls worshipped in Memphis,
the capital of Egypt's Old
Kingdom.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 11:54:53 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.5e405e902c774aa2b563676e4a472230.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn111.jpg?x=229&y=345&sig=nC4RYuEw2Ip43NG3qZkbFQ--)

A sarcophagus with hieroglyphics
on the side is seen inside the well-
known Saqqara Serapium, a tunnel
of underground tombs, discovered
by French archeologist August
Mariette in 1850, that has been
closed to the public for repairs for
the last ten years at Saqqara,
south of Cairo, Egypt Thursday,
June 5, 2008.

Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's
Supreme Council of Antiquities,
announced Thursday the discovery
of a part of a ceremonial procession
road, dating back to the Ptolemaic
period, which ran for about 300
years before 30 B.C.

It runs along from the recently dis-
covered 'missing' pyramid of obscure
pharaoh King Menkauhor and leads
from a mummification chamber toward
the Saqqara Serapium, where sacred
bulls were interred.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:00:01 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.7a65309381ad4fa3a1f7d14c3b029984.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn108.jpg?x=400&y=266&sig=ly.ebNOBUJHDJSJkng1dCw--)

A sarcophagus is seen inside the well-known Saqqara Serapium,
a tunnel of underground tombs, discovered by French archeolo-
gist August Mariette in 1850, that has been closed to the public
for repairs for the last ten years at Saqqara, south of Cairo,
Egypt Thursday, June 5, 2008.

Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities,
announced Thursday the discovery of a part of a ceremonial
procession road, dating back to the Ptolemaic period, which ran
for about 300 years before 30 B.C. It runs along from the recently
discovered 'missing' pyramid of obscure pharaoh King Menkauhor
and leads from a mummification chamber toward the Saqqara
Serapium, where sacred bulls were interred.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:04:03 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.c14c03d59fe24efda85785c79d44671f.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn110.jpg?x=400&y=261&sig=TI1dy.iwIiGKmruY.2PX0Q--)

A worker is seen inside the well-known Saqqara Serapium,
a tunnel of underground tombs, discovered by French
archeologist August Mariette in 1850, that has been closed
to the public for repairs for the last ten years at Saqqara,
south of Cairo, Egypt Thursday, June 5, 2008.

Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities,
announced Thursday the discovery of a part of a ceremonial
procession road, dating back to the Ptolemaic period, which
ran for about 300 years before 30 B.C. It runs along from the
recently discovered 'missing' pyramid of obscure pharaoh King
Menkauhor and leads from a mummification chamber toward
the Saqqara Serapium, where sacred bulls were interred.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:07:22 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.529a9f7a722443e0a872d6ee83251d92.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn109.jpg?x=400&y=268&sig=AZSFTvYwpwq1Ibnsz2rTGQ--)

A worker is seen inside the well-known Saqqara Serapium,
a tunnel of underground tombs, discovered by French
archeologist August Mariette in 1850, that has been closed
to the public for repairs for the last ten years at Saqqara,
south of Cairo, Egypt Thursday, June 5, 2008.

Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities,
announced Thursday the discovery of a part of a ceremonial
procession road, dating back to the Ptolemaic period, which
ran for about 300 years before 30 B.C.

It runs along from the recently discovered 'missing' pyramid of
obscure pharaoh King Menkauhor and leads from a mummifica-
tion chamber toward the Saqqara Serapium, where sacred bulls
were interred.

(AP Photo/Nasser Nasser)

(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20080605/capt.51276c620d444e2393933ff33d3754bb.mideast_egypt_missing_pyramid_nn107.jpg?x=400&y=266&sig=5Kt328Jpbs4YJ8ed4xnN3Q--)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:14:47 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20080605/i/ra2441465076.jpg?x=400&y=269&sig=3P11izyA89YTCZiS3EmTDQ--)

Zahi Hawas, Egypt's chief archaeologist and head of the
Supreme Council of Antiquities, walks at a pyramid site in
Sakara, Giza province, June 5, 2008.

Hawass said on Thursday he had identified a badly eroded
pyramid south of Cairo as that of the Fifth Dynasty Pharaoh
Menkauhor, who ruled Egypt in the 24th century BC.

REUTERS/Amr Dalsh
Photo Tools


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:17:55 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20080605/i/r3657372878.jpg?x=249&y=345&sig=7WQ8zdnPVkI01wbl9Uh9QA--)

A worker walks at a pyramid site in Sakara,
Giza province, June 5, 2008.

Egypt's chief archaeologist said on Thursday
he had identified a badly eroded pyramid south
of Cairo as that of the Fifth Dynasty Pharaoh
Menkauhor, who ruled Egypt in the 24th century BC.

REUTERS/Amr Dalsh (EGYPT)


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:20:27 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20080605/i/r2095074709.jpg?x=400&y=260&sig=QdxlktCAsokfpkO5g3w6Fg--)

Workers clear sand at a pyramid site in Sakara,
Giza province, June 5, 2008.

Egypt's chief archaeologist said on Thursday he
had identified a badly eroded pyramid south of
Cairo as that of the Fifth Dynasty Pharaoh
Menkauhor, who ruled Egypt in the 24th century BC.

REUTERS/Amr Dalsh (EGYPT)


http://news.yahoo.com/nphotos/Archaeologists-uncover-missing-pyramid-Saqqara-Cairo2C-Egypt/ss/events/sc/060508missingpyramid/s:/ap/20080606/ap_on_re_mi_ea/egypt_missing_pyramid/im:/080605/ids_photos_wl/r2095074709.jpg/#photoViewer=/080605/photos_sc/2008_06_05t092735_450x321_us_egypt_pyramid


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:40:37 pm








                                          Eroded pyramid attributed to early pharaoh





JONATHAN WRIGHT

Reuters

June 5, 2008 at 2:07 PM EDT

SAKKARA, Egypt — Egypt's chief archeologist said on Thursday he had identified a badly eroded pyramid south of Cairo as that of the Fifth Dynasty pharaoh Menkauhor, who ruled Egypt in the 24th century BC.

The identification by Zahi Hawass, head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, could end the long controversy over the structure known as the Headless Pyramid, first described by the German archeologist Lepsius in the 19th century.

Some archeologists have associated the pyramid with the Tenth Dynasty pharaoh Merykare, who ruled about 400 years later, and others with the Twelfth Dynasty, which ruled Egypt between 1991 and 1786 BC during the period known as the Middle Kingdom.

But Dr. Hawass, whose teams have excavated the lower levels of the pyramid more thoroughly than any previous expeditions, said he is now convinced that the pyramid was that of Menkauhor, who is known from inscriptions to have built one somewhere.


Dr. Zahi Hawass's website 

 "Now we are sure that this pyramid is of a style of a pyramid of Dynasty V and belongs to a king called Menkauhor," Dr. Hawass told reporters during a tour of the site.

The archeologists did not find inscriptions with the name of the pharaoh, so Dr. Hawass based his attribution on architectural features, coupled with the fact that Menkauhor is the only Fifth Dynasty ruler whose pyramid has not been identified.

He pointed out large red granite blocks at the entrance to the burial chamber and said these were characteristic of pyramids of that period, of which there are many examples.




No labyrinthine passages


He also said that, on close examination, the plain lid of the sarcophagus was made of a material – grey schist – closely associated with the Old Kingdom.

"The material of this sarcophagus was never used in the Middle Kingdom," he added.

Another deciding factor was the ground plan of the substructure, which lacks the labyrinthine pattern of passages that led to the burial chambers of Middle Kingdom pyramids.

"The Middle Kingdom pyramids ... have complicated corridors until you reach the burial chamber. Without discovering any inscription, I tell you this is Old Kingdom. The substructure is exactly Dynasty V," he said.

The top part of the pyramid disappeared many years ago, probably removed by villagers to build houses in the flood plain of the Nile, which lies about 100 metres away.

When Dr. Hawass's team started work at the site about 18 months ago, they had to remove about eight metres of sand to reach the relatively well-preserved lower levels.

In the process, they stumbled upon what Dr. Hawass said was a processional way, built in the Ptolemaic period, along which the high priest of the Apis bull cult would lead the funeral of each sacred bull toward the Serapeum, where the mummified animals were buried underground in vast stone sarcophaguses.

A stone found nearby bears the name of Ptolemy V, a pharaoh of Greek origin who ruled Egypt between 205 and 180 BC.


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:42:31 pm
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/photogalleries/pyramid-photos/images/primary/1_PYRAMID_461.jpg)









                                     PHOTOS: ''Lost'' Egypt Pyramid Found Near Bull Tombs   





NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC

RELATED STORIES
Lost Pyramid Found Buried in Egypt (June 5, 2008)
Mysteries of the Ancient World: Giza Pyramids

VIDEO: Lost Pyramid Found in Egypt


June 5, 2008—The foundations of a pyramid long lost under the sands of Egypt lie exposed on June 2, 2008. Archaeologists today announced the rediscovery of the ruins in Saqqara, south of Cairo. (Read the full story.)

The so-called Headless Pyramid was reported in the early 19th century by a German archaeologist, but its exact location was subsequently lost.

With its recent rediscovery, archaeologists have determined that the pyramid probably belonged to Pharaoh Menkauhor, who is believed to have ruled for eight years in the mid-2400s B.C. Teams also found a new part of a sacred road at the site that is thought to have been used for processions of mummified royal bulls.


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:50:19 pm








                                             "Lost" Pyramid Found Buried in Egypt






Andrew Bossone in Cairo
for National Geographic News
June 5, 2008

The pyramid of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh has been rediscovered after being buried for generations, archaeologists announced today. (See photos and video.)

The pyramid is thought to house the tomb of King Menkauhor, who is believed to have ruled in Egypt's 5th dynasty for eight years in the mid-2400s B.C.

Long since reduced to its foundations, the structure was previously known as Number 29 or the "Headless Pyramid." It was mentioned in the mid-19th century by German archaeologist Karl Richard Lepsius.

Then it disappeared in the sands of Saqqara, a sprawling royal burial complex near current-day Cairo.

It took Egyptian archaeologists about a year and a half just to remove all the sand above the pyramid.

"After Lepsius the location of the pyramid was lost and the substructure of [the] pyramid never known," said Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.

"It was forgotten by people until we began to search this area and a hill of sand, maybe 25 feet [7.6 meters] high."

Hawass is a National Geographic explorer-in-residence. (The National Geographic Society owns National Geographic News.)




Old Kingdom Clues


Nothing on the pyramid specifically names its owner, and the majority of the structure has been destroyed, so Egyptian archaeologists had to put several clues together to identify it.

Past archaeologists have disputed the date of the pyramid, usually putting it in either the Old Kingdom, between 2575 and 2150 B.C., or the Middle Kingdom, between 1975 and 1640 B.C.

But the recent research determined that the pyramid lacked the winding mazes typical of a Middle Kingdom temple.


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2008, 12:54:43 pm






Instead, the lack of artwork and inscriptions, as well as the structure's red granite blocks, were typical of Old Kingdom pyramids, according to Hawass.

 
The burial chamber also contained the lid of a sarcophagus made of gray schist, a type of rock often used in the Old Kingdom.

What's more, the newfound pyramid resembles the pyramid next to it, which belongs to the first pharaoh of the 6th dynasty, Teti, who ruled from 2345 to 2181 B.C. That suggested the lost pyramid could also come from the 5th dynasty.

The neighboring pyramid also pointed to the owner of the pyramid as Menkauhor, since he was without a discovered burial tomb.

"There were missing pyramids of the kings, and this is one of them," Hawass said.





Sacred Road


Archaeologists also announced the discovery of new parts of a sacred road, dating to the Ptolemaic period, some 2,000 years after the Old Kingdom.

The discovery shows the sustained importance of Saqqara, which was located in the ancient capital of Memphis, the researchers added.

Ola El Aguizy is a professor of ancient Egyptian languages at Cairo University.

"During the whole history of Egypt, Memphis and Saqqara had remained very, very important," El Aguizy said.

"I am discovering tombs of people of the 26th dynasty [in Saqqara] that were reusing tombs of the 19th dynasty. It is a sacred place, and so many important people wanted to be buried there."

Another reason people wanted to be buried in Saqqara was the sacred road, which was used for the procession of mummified bulls of the god of the dead, Osiris.

"[Osiris] was enthroned like a king and when he died they made funerals like those of a king," El Aguizy said.

The bulls also had a historical significance: Their deaths were used to determine when a pharaoh reigned.

"It's a way of dating the pharaohs," El Aguizy said. "Sometimes we know how many bulls died during the reign of a king, or vice versa."





More Discoveries Expected

The sacred path, first discovered by French archaeologist Auguste Mariette in 1850, is nicknamed the Way of the Sphinxes because of its long row of statues often found at the gates of Egyptian temples.


"The modern name of ancient Memphis is Mit Rahina … which means the way of the Sphinx," El Aguizy said.

"So [this path is] presumably the Way, with sphinxes [formerly] on the two sides."

Archaeologists hope the path will lead to more discoveries in the area. Plans are underway to relocate modern-day workers who live in a village beside the Menkauhor site to allow an expanded search for more temples.

"When I say we've discovered 30 percent of the Egyptian monuments, I take Saqarra as the first example," Hawass said.

"Saqqara is a virgin site," he added. "It's very important for us to do this excavation to understand more about the pyramids of the Old Kingdom."



http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/photogalleries/pyramid-photos/photo3.html


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Josie Linde on June 07, 2008, 03:01:37 am
Great stuff, Bianca!


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:26:45 pm




Thanks, Josie!


But they went and 'pulled' all the photos.....Idiots!

I'll see if I can come up with more.


Hugs,
b


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:32:18 pm
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/photogalleries/pyramid-photos/images/primary/2_PYRAMID_461.jpg)







On June 5, 2008, a worker dusts off a large slab of granite that was part of a sarcophagus found in the burial chamber of a recently rediscovered pyramid.

The ancient pyramid had been reported in the 19th century but was subsequently lost under the desert. When a team led by Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, found the site again, it took a year and a half just to remove all the sand.

Long since reduced to its foundations, the pyramid dates back about 4,000 years and is most likely the resting place of Pharaoh Menkauhor, Hawass said. The ruler was the last king of the 5th dynasty, which lasted from 2494 to 2345 B.C.



National Geographic


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:36:07 pm
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/photogalleries/pyramid-photos/images/primary/3_PYRAMID_461.jpg)






Egyptian workers examine the Saqqara Serapeum, a long tunnel of underground tombs for sacred bulls discovered in 1850, on June 5, 2008. The tunnel has been closed to the public for repairs for the past ten years.

The tombs lie near a recently rediscovered pyramid that had been lost for decades under the sands of Saqqara, south of Cairo.

The team that found the pyramid also discovered a new part of the ceremonial road that ancient Egyptian priests used to carry the bulls' bodies from a mummification chamber to the Serapeum, where the animals where interred.



National Geographic


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:38:37 pm
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/06/photogalleries/pyramid-photos/images/primary/4_PYRAMID_461.jpg)






2008, inside the Saqqara Serapeum, a long tunnel of underground tombs for sacred bulls near a recently rediscovered pyramid in Egypt.

Ancient Egyptians revered Saqqara as an important place to be interred, perhaps partly because the necropolis was also the burial site for bulls bred by pharaohs.

When the animals died, they were embalmed and carried along a ceremonial road nicknamed the Way of the Sphinxes, which runs near the newfound pyramid and leads to the Serapeum.



National Geographic


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:42:36 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Louvre_122006_052.jpg/450px-Louvre_122006_052.jpg)






18th dynasty stele depicting the 5th dynasty pharaoh Menkauhor Kaiu.



Pharaoh of Egypt


Reign

2422–2414 BC, 
5th dynasty


Predecessor

Nyuserre Ini


Successor

Djedkare Isesi


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:48:09 pm








Menkauhor Kaiu, (in Greek known as Menkeris),


was a Pharaoh of the Fifth dynasty during the Old Kingdom.

His royal name or prenomen, Menkauhor, means as "Eternal are the Souls of Re."

The Turin King List assigns him 8 years of rule.

He was the last pharaoh to build a sun temple—called Akhet-Re.

His pyramid was reported to have been found in 1842 by German archaeologist Karl Richard Lepsius at Saqqara. Lepsius called it number 29 or the "Headless Pyramid".

The pyramid was then lost under shifting sands until it was rediscovered in 2008.  The pyramid is believed to be his. This would validate contemporary fifth dynasty records which indicate Menkauhor's pyramid was located at either Dahshur or Saqqara.

He is, in terms of present-day knowledge, the second most obscure 5th Dynasty ruler after the ephemeral Shepseskare — although a relief by an official named Tjutju depicts him adoring the pharaoh, one major quarry inscription at Wadi Maghara in the Sinai dated to his reign, a single seal bearing his name and a small alabaster statue prove his existence beyond doubt.

Several Old Kingdom administrative records at Abusir indicate that Menkauhor finished his pyramid complex which was called Ntry-iswt-Mn-kw-hr while his funerary cult was still operational long after
his death.


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:49:50 pm







References



^ a b c Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. p.61. Thames & Hudson. 2006. ISBN 0-500-28628-0

^ "Egypt uncovers 'missing' pyramid of a pharaoh", http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080605/ap_on_re_mi_ea/egypt_missing_pyramid_4, Katarina Kratovac, AP, June 5, 2008

^ Archeologists find 'missing pyramid' - CNN.com

^ Miroslav Verner, Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and 5th Dynasty Chronology, Archiv Orientální, Volume 69: 2001, p.405

^ Verner, p.405





External links



Egyptian Kings

Menkauhor Pyramid Found





RETRIEVED FROM

wikipedia.org


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 08:54:48 pm
(http://i.livescience.com/images/070604_satellite_egypt_02.jpg)

livescience.com


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 04, 2009, 09:21:57 pm

               (http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3035/2569977238_b6bc267e18_o.jpg)

                The re-discovery of Egypt's missing pyramid,



photographed by
Amr Dalsh of Reuters
and Nasser Nasser
of the Associated Press


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 06, 2009, 07:54:10 am
(http://www.crystalinks.com/menkauhor.jpg)








                                           Menkauhor - "Eternal are the Souls of Re"






Menkauhor was the seventh king of the 5th Dynasty.

His birth name was Kalu.

According to the Turin King-list he ruled for some eight years. References fairly consistently give his reign as lasting from about 2421 or 2422 until 2414. He never achieved the level of fame of the other kings of the 5th dynasty. His reign is attested by an inscription in the Sinai and a seal from Abusir.

The relationship of Menkauhor with his predecessors or successors is not known. However, it is likely that he was either the brother or son of Niuserre, his predecessor. If he was Niuserre's son, it would probably have been by Niuserre's chief queen, Neput-Nebu. It is also likely that he was the father of Djedkare, who followed him to the throne. If not, he was almost certainly Djedkare's brother, with Niuserre being both king's father, or Djedkare's cousin, with Djedkare being the son of Neferefre, and Menkauhor being the son of Niuserre.

He is reputed as having sent his troops to Sinai in order to acquire materials for the construction of his tomb.

He was the last pharaoh to build a sun temple. His solar-temple, called Akhet-Re, and his pyramid are mentioned in texts from private tombs. This dynasty was famous for their solar temples, and Menkauhor's temple is probably located at either Abusir or Saqqara. It would have probably been the last such temple built, however, because his successors appear to have drifted away somewhat from the solar cult.

Menkauhor's pyramid has not been positively identified, but if the assumption that his pyramid is to be located at Dashur is correct, this would imply a departure from Abusir. However, some Egyptologists seem to strongly believe that his pyramid is the "Headless Pyramid", located in North Saqqara east of Teti's complex. There is mounting evidence to support this conclusion. B. G. Ockinga, for example argues that during the 18th Dynasty the Teti complex may have been associated with a cult belonging to a deified Menkauhor. Wherever it is located, his pyramid was called "Divine are the (cult) places of Menkauhor".

His reign is attested by an inscription in the Sinai at Magharah, indicating that he continued to quarry stone in that location as did his predecessors and successors. Given the lack of information on this king, we can also probably make some assumptions based on the activities of those predecessors and successors. For example, while he have no inscriptions as evidence, both Niuserre and Djedkare quarried stone northwest of Aswan, so it is likely that Menkauhor did as well.

It is also highly likely that he continued commercial and diplomatic relations with Byblos, as did both Niuserre and Djedkare, and in fact we do find a few objects in the area near Dorak bearing his name. It is also likely that he had some sort of dealings with Nubia, but whether he sent expeditions to Punt, as did Niuserre and Djedkare, is unknown.

Otherwise, Menkauhor is also attested to by a small alabaster statue that is now located in the Egyptian museum in Cairo and by a relief of Tjutju adoring King Menkauhor and other divinities. This relief, owned by the Louvre, has been on loan to the Cleveland Museum of Art.


Title: Re: PICTURES of "Missing" Pyramid of A Pharaoh And The Connected SERAPIUM
Post by: Bianca on March 06, 2009, 07:57:59 am

               (http://www.crystalinks.com/menkauhorseal.jpg)

               There is also a seal bearing his name
               that was found at Abusir.






               THE FIFTH DYNASTY

 
               http://www.crystalinks.com/dynasty5.html