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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Bianca
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« Reply #570 on: December 10, 2007, 08:43:05 am »










 This colossal statue of King Tutankhamun (at 17 ft. 4 in., the tallest ancient Egyptian statue in the Western Hemisphere, and weighing in at approximately 12,000 pounds) can be found at the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. I took this photo during my Egyptology tour of Chicago in early August. The statue was discovered near Medinet Habu (west bank at Luxor--ancient Thebes) in the Temple of Aye and Horemheb in 1930.

Below are two photos showing, somewhat poorly I'm afraid, the placard attached to the statue. (If you click on either of them you will open an enlarged view which, of course, is much easier to read.) It's a fascinating story!


http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html
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« Reply #571 on: December 10, 2007, 08:44:40 am »




http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html
CLICK ON IMAGE
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« Reply #572 on: December 10, 2007, 08:47:24 am »




http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html

CLICK ON IMAGE
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« Reply #573 on: December 10, 2007, 09:04:05 am »











                                                        Colossal Statue of Tutankhamun
 




Oriental Institute archaeologists working at Thebes excavated this statue of King Tutankhamun. It had been usurped by succeeding kings and now bears the name of Horemheb.

Tutankhamun wears the double crown and the royal nemes headcloth of the pharaohs; a protective cobra goddess (uraeus serpent) rears above his forehead. In his hands the king grasps scroll-like objects thought to be containers for the documents by which the gods affirmed the monarch's right to divine rule. The sword at his waist has a falcon's head, symbol of the god Horus, who was believed to be manifested by the living pharaoh. The small feet at the king's left side were part of a statue of his wife, Ankhesenpaamun, whose figure was more nearly life-sized.

The facial features of this statue strongly resemble other representations of Tutankhamun from his famous tomb, which was discovered relatively intact in the Valley of the Kings.


https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum/highlights/egypt.html
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« Reply #574 on: December 10, 2007, 09:09:24 am »







http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html

CLICK ON IMAGE
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« Reply #575 on: December 10, 2007, 08:47:10 pm »










                       Egyptian Head of Antiquities rebukes American black supremacists.





CofCC.org News Team

More information on race in ancient Egypt.

There is a growing list of famous people, whom American black supremacists now claim were actually black or part black. In some cases elements of the mainstream media have reported some of these claims as fact. Groups like the NOI, the New Black Panthers, and even the all-black church which Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey attend make these claims. Examples include Cleopatra (a Greek), Hannibal (a Carthaginian of Phoenician origin), Beethoven, the Olmecs (DNA tests show they are most closely related to the Chinese and have no Negro DNA), and many more.

Now the head of Egyptian Antiquities has directly rebuked one of their silly claims–that the Egyptian King Tutankhamun was black. In fact, militant groups such as the New Black Panther Party, have actually staged protests in front of museums to demand that images of Tutankhamun be painted black. Several different teams of forensic scientists from multiple countries have studied the remains of Tutankhamun and have all independently classified him as “North African Caucasoid.”

Egyptian antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass insisted Tuesday that Tutankhamun was not black despite calls by US black activists to recognise the boy king’s dark skin colour.

“Tutankhamun was not black, and the portrayal of ancient Egyptian civilisation as black has no element of truth to it,” Hawass told reporters.

“Egyptians are not Arabs and are not Africans despite the fact that Egypt is in Africa,” he said, quoted by the official MENA news agency.

Hawass said he was responding to several demonstrations in Philadelphia after a lecture he gave there on September 6, 2007 where he defended his theory.


http://www.cofcc.org/?p=704
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« Reply #576 on: December 13, 2007, 04:16:47 pm »








                         Podcast: “The Ancient Near East in the Time of Tutankhamun”





The Oriental Institute offers an audio podcast for use while touring the Wonderful Things! The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun; The Harry Burton Photographs exhibit, which is on display through Oct. 8, 2006.

The audio files can be downloaded as a podcast to an MP3 player. If you are familiar with downloading files to your MP3 player, you can access the files here. If not, please follow these steps to download the files using iTunes.

iTunes is a free application offered by Apple; it can be used in either a Mac or Windows operating system. To download the application, visit Apple's website. Once you have installed the software, follow the instructions below.

Open iTunes and click into the Podcast view by highlighting "Podcasts" under the "Source" navigation bar on the left-hand side.
From the "Advanced" pulldown menu, select "Subscribe to Podcast..."
Paste the following URL into the resulting dialog box and click OK: http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/06/audio/tut.xml
Expand the view of the "Oriental Institute King Tutankhamun Exhibit Walking Tour" files by clicking the arrow to the left of its title.
iTunes will automatically download the introductory "episode" (.mp3 file) of the walking tour; to download the other .mp3 files, click the "GET" button alongside each episode name.
Once all 11 files are downloaded, you can then transfer them to your MP3 player; consult your own player's documentation for more information on this process.
The files are meant to be listened to in order. "OI Walking Tour: An Introduction" is the initial file. After that, the audio directions will guide you through the exhibit. Use the number in each file title to determine which to listen to next: Cartouche No. 1, Cartouche No. 2, Cartouche No. 3, etc.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Oriental Institute Museum is located on the campus of The University of Chicago at 1155 East 58th Street, Chicago. Museum hours are: Tuesday through Saturday, l0:00 am-6:00 pm, Wednesday until 8:30 pm, Sunday noon to 6:00 pm, closed on Monday. Suggested donation for admission to the museum is $5.00 for adults and $2.00 for children. Telephone for program information: (773) 702-9514, or http://www.oi.uchicago.edu.

 

http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/06/060523.tut-podcast.shtml
Last modified at 12:37 PM CST on Wednesday, June 14, 2006. 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
University of Chicago News Office
5801 South Ellis Avenue - Room 200
Chicago, Illinois 60637-1473 (773) 702-8360
Fax: (773) 702-8324
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Bianca
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« Reply #577 on: December 13, 2007, 06:56:25 pm »



Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme
 Council of Antiquities, speaks about an exhibit of
treasures of Tutankhamun (King Tut), and other
Valley of the Kings tombs and ancient sites.


Eight baskets filled with fruits preserved for more than
3,000 years have been discovered by Egyptian
archaeologists in Tutankhamun's tomb, the Supreme
Council of Antiquities said.
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« Reply #578 on: December 13, 2007, 06:59:40 pm »








                                 Ancient Egyptian fruit hampers found in King Tut's tomb





Sep 24, 2007

CAIRO (AFP) — Eight baskets filled with fruits preserved for more than 3,000 years have been discovered by Egyptian archaeologists in Tutankhamun's tomb, the Supreme Council of Antiquities said on Monday.

A team of Egyptian archaeologists, led by antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass, made the disovery in the Valley of the Kings in the ancient city of Thebes, the modern-day Luxor, in southern Egypt.

"The eight baskets contained large quantities of doum fruits, which have been well preserved," Hawass said in a statement.

The fruit baskets are each 50cm (nearly 20 inches) high, the antiquities department said.

The sweet orange-red fruit, also known as the gingerbread fruit, comes from the Doum Palm, a native of southern Egypt, and was traditionally offered at funerals.

Twenty pear-shaped containers, one metre (three feet) in height and bearing Tutankhamun's official seal were also discovered.

According to Hawass, the containers are probably full of provisions that were destined to travel with the pharaoh to the afterlife. They will be opened soon, he said.

The boy king's intact tomb caused an international sensation when it was discovered by Briton Howard Carter in 1922. More than 5,000 beautifully preserved objects -- including a chair with an intact wicker seat and a cosmetic jar which still contained animal fats and resins -- were found.
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« Reply #579 on: December 13, 2007, 07:03:20 pm »



DOUM PALM - Hyphaene coriacea










A team of Egyptian archaeologists, led by antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass, made the discovery in the Valley of the Kings in the ancient city of Thebes, the modern-day Luxor, in southern Egypt.

"The eight baskets contained large quantities of doum fruits, which have been well preserved," Mr Hawass said in a statement.

The fruit baskets are each 50 centimetres high, the antiquities department said.

The sweet orange-red fruit, also known as the gingerbread fruit, comes from the doum palm, a native of southern Egypt, and was traditionally offered at funerals.

Twenty pear-shaped containers, one metre in height and bearing Tutankhamun's official seal were also discovered.

According to Mr Hawass, the containers are probably full of provisions that were destined to travel with the pharaoh to the afterlife. They will be opened soon, he said.

- AFP
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« Reply #580 on: December 13, 2007, 07:14:08 pm »



DOUM PALM FRUIT










From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Doum Palm in Northern Sudan

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
 
Division: Magnoliophyta
 
Class: Liliopsida
 
Order: Arecales
 
Family: Arecaceae
 
Genus: Hyphaene
 
Species: H. thebaica
 
 
Binomial name
Hyphaene thebaica
(L.) Mart.
 
                                                              Hyphaene thebaica



The thebaica, (الدوم in Arabic), is a type of palm tree, Hyphaena thebaica, also called gingerbread tree,
with edible oval fruit, originally native to the Nile valley. It is a member of the palm family, Arecaceae.
Its fibre and leaflets are used by people along the Nile to weave baskets (e.g.Material Culture of
the Manasir).
 
The northernmost habitat of the Doum Palm is in Evrona, about 20 kms north of Eilat, Israel.

The doum palm fruit is also known in Eritrea as Akat, or Akaat in the Tigrinya language. The thin dried brown rind is made into molasses, cakes, and sweetmeats. The unripe kernals are edible. The shoots of
the germinated seeds are also eaten as a vegetable. Herb tea of doum is popular in Egypt and believed
good for diabetes.

It was considered sacred by the Ancient Egyptians and the seed was found in many pharaoh's tombs
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« Reply #581 on: December 14, 2007, 11:34:47 am »








It occurs as dense, fire-resistant forests of coastal arid regions from East Africa to India. While it is propagated from seeds, which take a very long time to become eatablished, it can also be planted from suckers originating at the base.

The vegetative parts of the doum palm, trunk and leaves, are used much as are those of other palms in weaving and construction. In addition, the young, still not unfolded leaves are used for weaving versatile mats. The sap obtained from tapping the apex of the palm has the usual multiple purpose, but its use is prohibited in some countries because of the alcoholic toddy. The fruit pulp has the smell of gingerbread, hence one name of the palm. It is used in cooking in various ways, and varieties differ in their edibility. While the unripe kernel is edible, the ripe kernel is too hard and used only as a vegetable ivory.

To the peoples of the deserts where doum palms are found, this palm is a life-sustaining blessing.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The Annex contained about 40 wine jars







                                                                   King Tut Red





The discovery of jars of wine in King Tuts tomb prompted a team of Spanish scientists to try and determine if the boy king preferred red or white wine. An analysis of residues in 2005 revealed that the jars contained syringic acid, which implied that the wine was made with red grapes.

www.livescience.com
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« Reply #582 on: December 14, 2007, 12:29:30 pm »









                                       Amarna - Ancient Egyptian glassmaking recreated





3000-year-old furnace rebuilt by archaeologist

The reconstructed kiln built by Dr. Paul Nicholson of Cardiff University and Dr. Caroline Jackson of Sheffield University.

 
A team led by a Cardiff University archaeologist has reconstructed a 3,000-year-old glass furnace, showing that Ancient Egyptian glassmaking methods were much more advanced than previously thought.

Dr Paul Nicholson, of the University’s School of History and Archaeology, is leader of an Egypt Exploration Society team working on the earliest fully excavated glassmaking site in the world. The site, at Amarna, on the banks of the Nile, dates back to the reign of Akhanaten (1352 - 1336 B.C.), just a few years before the rule of Tutankhamun.

It was previously thought that the Ancient Egyptians may have imported their glass from the Near East at around this time. However, the excavation team believes the evidence from Amarna shows they were making it themselves, possibly in a single stage operation. Dr Nicholson and his colleague Dr Caroline Jackson of Sheffield University demonstrated this was possible, using local sand to produce a glass ingot from their own experimental reconstruction of a furnace near the site.

The team have also discovered that the glassworks was part of an industrial complex which involved a number of other high temperature manufacturing processes. The site also contained a potter’s workshop and facilities for making blue pigment and faience - a material used in amulets and architectural inlays. The site was near one of the main temples at Amarna and may have been used to produce materials in state buildings.

Dr Nicholson, who has been working at Amarna since 1983, said: “It has been argued that the Egyptians imported their glass and worked it into the artefacts that have been discovered from this time. I believe there is now enough evidence to show that skilled craftsmen could make their own glass and were probably involved in a range of other manufacturing industries as well.”


###
Dr Nicholson has now written a book detailing the discoveries made at Amarna. Entitled Brilliant Things for Akhenaten, it is published by the Egypt Exploration Society (London) and available through Oxbow Books in the UK and The David Brown Book Company in the USA.

Yahoo News




SEE PICTURES OF THE ORIGINALS HERE:


http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,706.90.html
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« Reply #583 on: December 14, 2007, 01:12:45 pm »








RAW MATERIALS OF GLASS FROM AMARNA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGINS OF EGYPTIAN GLASS*





A. J. SHORTLAND


11Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, 6 Keble Road, Oxford, 0X1 3QJ, UK and M. S. TITE11Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, 6 Keble Road, Oxford, 0X1 3QJ, UK1Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, 6 Keble Road, Oxford, 0X1 3QJ, UK
*Received 14 April 1999, 15 July 1999.





Abstract



Analysis has been conducted on 19 blue glasses from Amarna in Middle Egypt dated to around 1350 BC. The results suggest that these glasses fall into two distinct types: cobalt coloured glasses with a natron based alkali made from local Egyptian materials, and copper coloured glasses with a plant ash alkali, which follow a Mesopotamian tradition of glass making. It is suggested that at least some of this copper/plant ash glass is imported into Egypt during the Amarna period despite extensive local production of cobalt/natron glass. Existing analyses (Lilyquist and Brill 1995) of the earliest glass from the reign of Tuthmosis III (c. 1450 BC) suggest that during this period the same two types of glass are present. Local Egyptian cobalt and natron in these early glasses implies that, despite the lack of archaeological evidence for production sites, glass was produced from its raw materials in Egypt as early as the reign of Tuthmosis III.





This article is cited by:

A. J. SHORTLANDand K. EREMIN. (2006) THE ANALYSIS OF SECOND MILLENNIUM GLASS FROM EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA, PART 1: NEW WDS ANALYSES*. Archaeometry 48:4, 581–603
Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

A. J. SHORTLAND and M. S. TITE and I. EWART. (2006) ANCIENT EXPLOITATION AND USE OF COBALT ALUMS FROM THE WESTERN OASES OF EGYPT*. Archaeometry 48:1, 153–168

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF
C. M. JACKSON and C. A. BOOTH and J. W. SMEDLEY. (2005) GLASS BY DESIGN? RAW MATERIALS, RECIPES AND COMPOSITIONAL DATA*. Archaeometry 47:4, 781–795

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

A. Jones. (2004) Archaeometry and materiality: materials-based analysis in theory and practice*. Archaeometry 46:3, 327–338

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

M. S. Tite and A. J. Shortland. (2003) Production Technology for Copper- and Cobalt-Blue Vitreous

Materials from the New Kingdom Site of Amarna—A Reappraisal*. Archaeometry 45:2, 285–312

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF
I. C. Freestone and K. A. LeslieM. Thirlwalland Y. Gorin-Rosen. (2003) Strontium Isotopes in the Investigation of Early Glass Production: Byzantine and Early Islamic Glass from the Near East*. Archaeometry 45:1, 19–32

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF
Users who read this article also read:
THE ANALYSIS OF SECOND MILLENNIUM GLASS FROM EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA, PART 1: NEW WDS ANALYSES*

A. J. SHORTLANDand K. EREMIN
Archaeometry, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 581-603, Nov 2006, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2006.00274.x
Abstract| References| Full Text HTML| Full Text PDF (208 KB)

LEAD ISOTOPE AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF OVER A HUNDRED SOUTH INDIAN METAL ICONS*
S. SRINIVASAN

Archaeometry, Volume 41, Issue 1, Page 91-116, Feb 1999, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.1999.tb00854.x
Abstract| References| Full Text PDF (1946 KB)

LEAD GLAZES IN ANTIQUITY—METHODS OF PRODUCTION AND REASONS FOR USE*
M. S. TITE, I. FREESTONE R. MASON, J. MOLERA, M. VENDRELL-SAZ N. WOOD
Archaeometry, Volume 40, Issue 2, Page 241-260, Aug 1998, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.1998.tb00836.x
Abstract| References| Full Text PDF (1498 KB)

LEAD ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF EIGHTEENTH-DYNASTY EGYPTIAN EYEPAINTS AND LEAD ANTIMONATE COLOURANTS*

A. J. SHORTLAND, P. T. NICHOLSON C. M. JACKSON
Archaeometry, Volume 42, Issue 1, Page 153-157, Feb 2000, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2000.tb00873.x
Abstract| References| Full Text PDF (307 KB)
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« Reply #584 on: December 14, 2007, 01:35:44 pm »



Dr. Paul T. Nicholson

Senior Lecturer in Archaeology
HISAR, Cardiff University,
PO Box 909, Cardiff CF10 3XU







Research interests



My research falls into three broad areas: Egyptian archaeology, early technology and archaeological science.

I have been involved in ceramic provenancing work on pottery from Egypt and from the German Iron Age. As part of my Egyptian research, I have undertaken several ethnoarchaeological projects, one of which - The Potters of Deir Mawas - has been published as a video film by my colleague Dr. Willemina Wendrich (at UCLA) and myself.   Copies of this are available for teaching purposes.

Most of my fieldwork in Egypt is conducted under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Society and involves students and recent graduates from Cardiff.





Early Vitreous Materials: Tell el-Amarna & Memphis



My current research concerns the production and technology of ancient Egyptian Glass and faience (a non-clay ceramic). As part of this work I am excavating an industrial site at Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt, the earliest glass factory so far excavated.

The importance of Amarna as an early centre of glass production was first recognised by Sir Flinders Petrie who excavated there in 1891-2, though without finding evidence of furnaces.  The new work has sought to clarify his findings and interpret them in the light of more recent research.  A glass furnace, based on an excavated example during the project, has been reconstructed there as an experiment by myself and Dr. Jackson of Sheffield University (see 3D reconstruction by Glyn Ryland).
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