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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Author Topic: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN  (Read 64121 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #390 on: November 01, 2007, 08:06:39 am »









Serpent Goddess



Painted sycamore wood

Height 44 cm (17.3 in); length 65 cm (25.6 in)

18th Dynasty, reign of Amenhotep II

Thebes, Valley of the Kings

Tomb of Amenhotep II (KV 35)

CG 24629



This winged serpent with a human head probably represents the goddess Weret-Hekau, meaning “The One Great of Magic.”

Her outspread wings suggest a shielding function. She is another example of a dangerous creature associated with a protective deity.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.


http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/story_pharaoh3.asp
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« Reply #391 on: November 01, 2007, 08:19:05 am »





The River Nile



The winding river, the lush floodplain, and the harsh sands of the low and high deserts form the landscape of Egypt.

Here, modern fishermen ply their trade in the predawn mists of the Delta.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.






                                                      Daily Life in Tut’s World




For both King Tutankhamun and his subjects, life in ancient Egypt centered on the Nile, the longest river in the world. Each year in early summer, heavy rains in the Ethiopian highlands south of Egypt caused the river to flood. When the water receded, fertile soil remained, allowing the Egyptians to plant and then harvest fruit, vegetables, and grains.

This regular and annual flooding cycle, along with the daily cycle of the rising and setting sun, defined the orderly worldview of the ancient Egyptians, structured their calendar and acted as a model for their beliefs about the afterlife.



Egyptian Social Structure

The Egyptians of King Tutankhamun’s world enjoyed a regular, orderly way of life. Scholars often describe their social structure as pyramidal, with the king at the top, supported by his family, the highest rank of officials, and the high priests of major state cults (who were royal appointments.)

Below these were the elite of the court, lower officials, army commanders, and priests of the higher religious orders. Reasonably well-off literate bureaucrats and artisans made up the middle class. Forming the base of the pyramid were the masses of illiterate peasants who tilled the fields, fought the wars, quarried stone, and built the elite’s villas, palaces, and temples.



Women in Egyptian Society

In comparison with much of the ancient world, women enjoyed relatively high status and were able to own property and represent themselves in a court of law. High-status women worked mainly as mistresses of their houses and estates and as musicians serving in the cults of the gods.


http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/story_pharaoh3.asp
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« Reply #392 on: November 04, 2007, 06:46:23 am »










                                              Tutankhamun's 'beautiful' face to be revealed




by Lamia Radi

 LUXOR, Egypt (AFP) - The true face of ancient Egypt's boy king Tutankhamun was on Sunday to be revealed to the public for the first time since he died in mysterious circumstances more than 3,000 years ago.

The pharaoh's mummy was to be moved from its ornate sarcophagus in the tomb where its 1922 discovery caused an international sensation to a nearby climate-controlled case where experts say it will be better preserved.

Tutankhamun's body is entirely wrapped in strips of white linen, except for his face which, until now, has only been seen by a handful of experts.

Made pharaoh at the age of nine, Tutankhamun became famous with the discovery of his tomb and the treasures within by Briton Howard Carter.

His iconic solid gold burial mask weighs 11 kilos (24 pounds), encrusted with lapis lazuli and other semi-precious stones.

The mummy had to be reconstructed after Carter cut it into 18 pieces in order to get access to amulets and other jewellery, said Mustafa Wazery, director of the Valley of the Kings.

"What you will see is a beautiful face," Wazery told journalists ahead of the mummy's displacement. "He's a good loooking boy, with a nice smile and buck teeth."

Every day, hundreds of visitors file through his tomb in the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the Nile in the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, bringing with them bacteria, humidity and other pollutants into the royal tomb.

"The mummy risked being reduced to dust because of the rising levels of humidity due to the visitors," Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass said.

"The mummy was already damaged by Howard Carter, who used sharp tools to remove the golden mask," said Culture Minister Faruq Hosni.

He says that Carter damaged the mummy by "exposing it to burning sunshine for many hours" in the desert landscape.

A silicon representation of the face of the legendary pharaoh, who died around 3,300 years ago at the age of just 19, was reconstructed in 2005 through images collected through CAT scans of his mummy.

Egyptian, Swiss and Italian experts also deduced that Tutankhamun died after an injury to his left leg led to rapid gangrene. They rejected a previously popular theory that the king had been killed by a blow to the neck.

When the tomb was discovered, the pharaoh's embalmed body was encased in three sarcophagi, one of which was made from solid gold.

Tutankhamun, the 12th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, reigned for 10 years around 3,300 years ago. Theories that he was assassinated stemmed from the fact that he was the last ruler of his dynasty.

The pharaoh Akhenaton the Heretic was thought to have fathered Tutankhamun but the identity of his mother is not known for sure.

The high priest Ay succeded Tutankhamun for four years -- also marrying his widow Ankhesenpamon --, followed by the military leader Horemheb who ruled for 26 years until he ceded power to Ramses, who founded the 19th dynasty.
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« Reply #393 on: November 04, 2007, 06:55:13 am »








                                          Egypt unveils King Tut's mummy to public





By ANNA JOHNSON,
Associated Press Writer
 
LUXOR, Egypt - The linen wrapped mummy of King Tut was put on public display for the first time on Sunday — 85 years after the 3,000-year-old boy pharaoh's golden enshrined tomb and mummy were discovered in Luxor's famed Valley of the Kings.

Archeologists removed the mummy from his stone sarcophagus in his underground tomb, revealing his shriveled leather-like face and body.

"The golden boy has magic and mystery and therefore every person all over the world will see what Egypt is doing to preserve the golden boy, and all of them I am sure will come to see the golden boy," Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass told reporters under the intense Luxor sun.

Hawass said scientists began restoring King Tut's badly damaged mummy more than two years ago after it was removed briefly from its sarcophagus and placed into a CT scanner for the first time for further examination. Much of the mummy's body is broken into 18 pieces that Hawass described looked like stones that were damaged when British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the mummy, took it from his tomb and tried to pull off his famous golden mask.

But Hawass said he fears a more recent phenomenon — mass tourism — is further deteriorating Tut's mummy. Thousands of tourists visit the underground chamber every month.

"The humidity and heat caused by ... people entering the tomb and their breathing will change the mummy to a powder. The only good thing (left) in this mummy is the face. We need to preserve the face," said Hawass, who wore his signature Indiana Jones-style tan hat.

The mystery surrounding King Tutankhamun and his glittering gold tomb has entranced ancient Egypt fans since Carter first discovered the hidden tomb on Nov. 4, 1922, revealing a trove of fabulous gold and precious stone treasures.

Archeologists in recent years have tried to resolve lingering questions over how he died and his precise royal lineage. Several books and documentaries dedicated to the young pharaoh, who is believed to have been the 12th ruler of ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty and ascended to the throne around the age of 8, are popular around the world.

In an effort to try to solve the mysteries, scientists removed Tut's mummy from his tomb and placed it into a portable CT scanner for 15 minutes in 2005 to obtain a three-dimensional image. The scans were the first done on an Egyptian mummy.

The results did rule out that Tut was violently murdered — but stopped short of definitively concluding how he died around 1323 B.C. Experts for the time though suggested that days before dying, Tut badly broke his left thigh, apparently in an accident, that may have caused a fatal infection.

The CT scan also provided the most revealing insight yet into the life of ancient Egypt's most famous king. He was well-fed, healthy, yet slightly built, standing at 5 feet, 6 inches tall at the time of his death. The scan also showed he had the typical overbite characteristic of other kings from his family, large incisor teeth and his lower teeth were slightly misaligned.

The unveiling of Tut's mummy comes amid a frenzy of international publicity for the boy king. A highly publicized museum exhibit traveling the globe drew more than 4 million people during the initial four-city American-leg of the tour. The exhibit will open later this month in London and after it will make a three-city encore tour in the U.S. beginning with the Dallas Museum of Art.

The Egyptian tourism industry is hoping to capitalize on that interest and draw tourists to Luxor to see something they couldn't at the museum — Tut's mummy. More than 9 million tourists visited Egypt last year — up from 8.7 million the previous year, the Egyptian Tourist Authority said.

The tourists will begin viewing the mummy Monday, Hawass said. The mummy will remain in the tomb indefinitely — unlike other Egyptian royal mummies, who are displayed in museums.

Canadian tourist Bryan Wadson said he and his wife would try to make it back to the Valley of the Kings for the second time on Monday because they missed the mummy Sunday.

"We're running out of time, but will try," he said after taking a photo with Hawass.

But not every tourist was eager to find out that Tut will be removed from his sarcophagus and put on display.

"I really think he should be left alone in quiet, in peace," said British tourist Bob Philpotts. "This is his resting place, and he should be left (there)."

John Taylor, an assistant keeper at the British Museum's department of ancient Egypt and Sudan, said tourists won't be the only ones to benefit by the display of Tut in a climate controlled case.

"In some ways, it could be advantageous to monitor the condition to see if the mummy is stable," he said by telephone from London.

Hawass said experts will begin another project trying to determine the pharaoh's precise royal lineage. It is unclear if he is the son or a half brother of Akhenaten, the "heretic" pharaoh who introduced a revolutionary form of monotheism to ancient Egypt and was the son of Amenhotep III.

"Everyone is dreaming of what he looks like. The face of Tutankhamun is different from any king in the Cairo museum. With his beautiful buck teeth, the tourists will see a little bit of the smile from the face of the golden boy," Hawass said.
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« Reply #394 on: November 04, 2007, 07:00:07 am »









                                                King Tut's face unveiled to world 


 



 

Scientists recently came up with this reconstruction of the face
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44217000/jpg/_44217181_kingtut203.jpg

Inside the tomb 


The face of one of Egypt's most mysterious ancient rulers, the boy king Tutankhamun, has been put on public view for the first time.

Archaeologists took the mummy from its golden sarcophagus and placed it in a climate-controlled case inside his tomb in Luxor's Valley of the Kings.

The event comes exactly 85 years after the site was discovered by British explorer Howard Carter.

Until now, only about 50 people have seen the 3,000-year-old face.

The face remained intact because of the mummification process and will continue to be protected from heat and humidity.

"The golden boy has magic and mystery and therefore every person all over the world will see what Egypt is doing to preserve the golden boy, and all of them I am sure will come to see the golden boy," Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass told reporters.

Tutankhamun was probably still in his teens when he died. Although he was a fairly minor royal, the treasures that were unearthed have captivated the world and drawn millions to the Valley of the Kings.

Critics say the remains will be put under threat by the heat and the humidity brought into the tomb by the vast crowds.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7077423.stm
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« Reply #395 on: November 04, 2007, 07:05:36 am »




 Tuesday, 10 May, 2005, 23:23 GMT 00:23 UK 
  bbc news
 
 




                                              Face of Tutankhamun reconstructed 







The French team created this image of the young king
Scientists have carried out the first facial reconstructions of Egypt's most famous ancient king, Tutankhamun.
Three teams of forensic artists - French, Egyptian and American - built separate but similar models of the king's face using scans of his skull.

The French and Egyptians knew who they were recreating, but the Americans were not told where the skull came from.

The models of the boy king, who died 3,300 years ago, reveal a young man with plump cheeks and a round chin.

Childhood image

The models bear a striking resemblance to the mask which covered the mummified face of King Tutankhamun when his remains were found by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922 and other ancient portraits.

"The shape of the face and skull are remarkably similar to a famous image of Tutankhamun as a child where he was shown as the sun god at dawn rising from a lotus blossom," said Zahi Hawass, Secretary-General of the Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.

The US team were not told where the skull came from 
Using high-resolution photos of the CT scans, the US team correctly identified the skull as coming from a North African.

A CT, or "Cat", scan involves the use X-rays to map the body.

The Egyptian team was able to work directly from the scans, which could distinguish different densities of soft tissue and bone.

"The results of the three teams were identical or very similar in the basic shape of the face, the size, shape and setting of the eyes, and the proportion of the skull," Mr Hawass said.

"The primary differences were in the shape of the end of the nose and ears," he added.

The French and American versions had similar noses and chins, but the Egyptian team gave their reconstruction a stronger nose, the council said.

Murder ruled out

The CT scans - the first ever done on an Egyptian mummy - were carried out in January this year.

 
The models bear a striking resemblance to ancient portraits 
They suggested that the king was a slightly built, but healthy man of 19 when he died, but that he most likely died of complications from a broken leg, rather than being murdered as long suspected.

When the body was x-rayed in 1968, a shard of bone was found in his skull, prompting speculation that he was killed by a blow.

Little is known about Tutankhamun's 10-year rule after he succeeded Akhenaten, who had abandoned Egypt's old gods in favour of monotheism.

Some historians had argued he was killed for attempting to bring back polytheism.

Others believed he was assassinated by Ay, his second in command and the man who succeeded him.

But Mr Hawass said he was confident that Tutankhamun, who died in 1352 BC, was not murdered.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7077423.stm
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« Reply #396 on: November 04, 2007, 09:00:58 am »








The stone sarcophagus containing the mummy of King
Tutankhamun is seen in his underground tomb in the
famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor November 4, 2007.
Egypt put the mummy of the boy pharaoh on display in
his tomb in the Valley of the Kings on Sunday, giving
visitors their first chance to see the face of a ruler who
died more than 3,000 years ago.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)










Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi Hawass, center,
supervises the removal of King Tut from his stone
sarcophagus in his underground tomb in the famed
Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday,
Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-old pharaoh,
whose life and death has captivated people for nearly
a century, was placed in a climate-controlled glass
box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing
under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)
« Last Edit: November 07, 2007, 02:37:35 pm by Europa » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #397 on: November 04, 2007, 09:15:45 am »








AP - Sun Nov 4, 9:33 AM ET Egypt's antiquities chief
Dr. Zahi Hawass, 3rd left, supervises the removal of
the lid of the sarcophagus of King Tut in his under-
ground tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor,
Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the
19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivat-
ed people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-
controlled glass box in the tomb, with only the face and
feet showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 09:46:49 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #398 on: November 04, 2007, 09:25:03 am »








Zahi Hawass (C), head of the High Council for Antiquities,
supervises the removal of the linen-wrapped mummy of
King Tutankhamen from his stone sarcophagus in his under
ground tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor November
4, 2007. The mummy of the boy pharaoh, whose life and
death has captivated people for nearly a century, was
placed in a climate-controlled glass showcase in the tomb,
with only the face and feet showing under the linen covering.

REUTERS/Ben Curtis/Pool (EGYPT)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 09:51:30 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #399 on: November 04, 2007, 09:53:28 am »








Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi Hawass, center, supervises
the removal of the mummy of King Tut from his stone
sarcophagus in his underground tomb in the famed Valley of
the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy
of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has
captivated people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-
controlled glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet
showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 09:56:28 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #400 on: November 04, 2007, 10:08:57 am »








AP - Sun Nov 4, 10:11 AM ET An archaeological worker looks
across at the face of the linen-wrapped mummy of King Tut as
he is removed from his stone sarcophagus in his underground
tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday,
Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose
life and death has captivated people for nearly a century, was
 placed in a climate-controlled glass box in the tomb, with only
the face and feet showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 10:12:24 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #401 on: November 04, 2007, 10:18:49 am »








The feet of the mummy of boy pharaoh King Tutankhamun
is seen in Luxor's Valley of the Kings November 4, 2007,
as it is displayed for the first time in public in a special
climate-controlled glass showcase after it was taken out
of its sarcophagus.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 10:27:44 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #402 on: November 04, 2007, 10:24:34 am »








Reuters - Sun Nov 4, 9:54 AM ET The feet of the mummy
of boy pharaoh King Tutankhamun is seen in Luxor's Valley
of the Kings November 4, 2007, as it is displayed for the
first time in public in a special climate-controlled glass
showcase after it was taken out of its sarcophagus.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 10:29:08 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #403 on: November 04, 2007, 10:31:31 am »








The face of the linen-wrapped mummy of King Tut is seen in a
glass case in his underground tomb in the famed Valley of the
 Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of
the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivated
people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-controlled
glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing
under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 10:33:41 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #404 on: November 04, 2007, 10:35:32 am »








AFP - Sun Nov 4, 10:53 AM ET The face of Pharaoh Tutankhamen
is displayed in a climate-controlled case at his tomb in the Valley
of the Kings, close to Luxor. The true face of ancient Egypt's boy
king Tutankhamun was revealed to the public for the first time since
 he died in mysterious circumstances more than 3,000 years ago.

(AFP/Cris Bouroncle)
« Last Edit: November 04, 2007, 10:42:51 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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